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MASTER SERIES MIMRER I 



THE SOLOMON R. GlGGEi\HEIM MUSEUM, MW YORK 



© 1962, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. New Yorh Library of Congress Card Catalogue Number 62-13861 Printed in the United States of America 



TRUSTEES 



HARRY F-. GUGGENHEIM. PRESIDENT 



ALBERT E. THIELE, VICE PRESIDENT 



H. H, ARNASON, VICE PRESIDENT, ART ADMINISTRATION 



THE COUNTESS CASTLE STEWART 



MRS. HARRY F. GUGGENHEIM 



A. CHAUNCEY NEW^LIN 



MRS. HENRY OBRE 



MISS HILLA REBAY. DIRECTOR EMERITUS 



DANIEL CATTON RICH 



>riCHAEL F, WETTACH 



MEDLEY G. B. "WHELPLEY 



CARL ZTGROSSER 



LEPERS TO THE EXHIBITION 



Julian J. and Joachim Jean Aberbach, New York 

Mr. and Mrs. Herbert C. Bernard, New York 

L. G. Clayeux, Paris 

Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Ciimmings, Chicago 

Mr. and Mrs. Solomon Ethe, Neiv York 

Mr. and Mrs. Myrtil Frank. New York 

Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Fuller, New York 

Mr. and Mrs. Jacques Gelman, Mexico, D. F. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ira Haupt, Asbury Park, New Jersey 

Maurice Lefebvre-Foinet, Paris 

Madame Fernand Leger, Gif-sur-Yvette, France 

Mr. and Mrs. Adrien Maeght, Paris 

Aime Maeght, Paris 

Robert Mayer, Winnetka, Illinois 

Mr. and Mrs. Julian I. Raskin, New York 

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Saidenberg. New York 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Zadok, New York 

Musee Fernand Leger, Biot. France 

Musee National d'.4rt Moderne, Paris 

The Museum of Modern .Art, New York 

Norton Gallery and School of Art, Jfest Palm Beach, Florida 

The Trustees of the Tate Gallery, London 

Galerie Louis Carre, Paris 
Robert Elkon Gallery, Neiv York 
Sidney Janis Gallery, New York 
Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris 
Perls Galleries, New York 
Saidenberg Gallery, Neiv York 



ACKPWLEDGMEm 



An exhibition attempting to gather the final, culminating works by one of the 
great artists of our time requires for its success a number of favorable con- 
ditions. It must first be assured of the full cooperation of those who were 
closest to the artist and count upon their generosity and confidence. This tvas 
the case when Mme. Fernand Leger and M. Georges Bauquier, the latter in 
his capacity as Director of the Musee Fernand Leger in Biot, agreed to coop- 
erate wholeheartedly with the initiative taken by the Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum. The ivillingness of the numerous museums, galleries and private 
collectors to part temporarily with their possessiojis and, in many instances, 
their readiness to assist with advice and counsel is another essential pre- 
requisite. This was fulfilled by those listed as lenders to the exhibition and 
to a heightened degree by the Galleries Louise Leiris and Maeght, whose 
principals Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler and Aime Maeght took a direct and 
active interest in the preparation of the Leger show. Messrs. Louis Carre and 
Sidney Janis rendered assistance in the same generous spirit and contributed 
color plates, thereby enriching the catalogue ivhich documents the exhibition. 

It need hardly be stressed that an undertaking of such importance could not 
be carried out without the imagination and the skill of the professional 
museum staff. Director Thomas M. Messer was assisted by Daniel Robbins, 
Assistant Curator, who wrote the introductory passages referring to each of 
the five themes listed in the catalogue and who relied upon Maurice Tuchman, 
SusiBloch and Carol Fuerstein for extensive research work. Dr. Louise Averill 
Svendsen, the Museum's Curator of Education, edited the catalogue. 

To all these the Trustees of The Solomon R. Guggenheim F oundation express 
their appreciation and their gratitude. 

Harry F. Guggenheim, President 



Fernand Leger was born in IBtll in Argentan, Normandy. After a period of apprentice- 
ship to an architect in Caen,' he came to Paris in 1900. He ivorked as an architectural 
draughlsman for two years and, in 1903, began his studies at the Ecole des Arts Decora- 
tifs and in the studios of Leon Cerome and Gabriel Fery. He also painted at the Academic 
Julian and studied the old niaslers at llie Louvre. 

By 1909 he had met Rousseau, Delaunay, Blaise Cendrars, Apollinaire and Max Jacob. 
Through Apollinaire and Jacob, he met the dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler who ex- 
hibited his work and introduced him to Picasso and Braque. 

Drafted into the army in 1914, Leger served in the engineering corps. He was ivounded 
and discharged in 1917. 

Leger married Jeanne-Augustine Lohy in 1919. The following year he met Le Corbusier, 
with ivhom he later traveled and worked— his first murals ivere executed for the archi- 
tect's paviUion at the Exposition des Arts Decoratifs in 1925. 

Leger s pioneering work in experimental cinema includes the BALLET MECANIQVE 
of 1924. In 1946 he collaborated ivith Hans Richter, Duchamp, Ernst and Calder on 
DREAMS THAT MONEY CAN BUY. His important stage designs include decor and 
costumes for the Sivedish Ballet between 1921 and 1923 and the Paris Opera in 1937 
and 1951. 

During the 1930's, Leger made three trips to the United States. He lived in this country 
throughout the war years and taught at Yale University and Mills College in Oakland, 
California. At this time he painted studies for and variations on THE DIVERS, THE 
CYCLISTS and THE COUNTRY OUTING. 

After the war, Leger returned to France and worked on several projects for public 
buildings. These commissions included : a mosaic for the churcJi faqade at Assy, 1946- 
49; windows and tapestries for the church at Audincourt, 1951 : a mural for the United 
Nations Building, Neiv York, 1952; and windoivs for the University of Caracas, 1954. 
In 1949 he began work on the theme of THE CONSTRUCTORS. 

After Jeanne Leger s death. Leger settled in Gif-sur-Yvelte. In 1952 he married Nadine 
Khodossevitch. In 1954 he completed the final version of THE GREAT PARADE, a 
theme which had occupied him for many years. 

Leger died in 1955. 



11 




III. The G real Parade (final version). 1954. Collection Aimc Maeght, Pads. 



FIVE THEMES AO VARIATION 



If ever one may speak of a culminating work, a summing-up of a life- 
long artistic striving, an etat definitif, it is of the GREAT PARADE 
by Fernand Leger. 

Within this monumental canvas completed by the seventy-three year old 
artist in 1954, are the insight and the experience, the skill and the knowl- 
edge, the perfection of form and the force of expression, evolved through 
countless preparatory and intermediary stages, through a long and stead- 
ily growing creative development. The thirty-six variants on view, ex- 
ecuted in all sizes, media and states of completion, are not more than 
perhaps one-half of the total number of extant versions that bear direct 
reference to the theme of the GREAT PARADE. Also traceable in the 
large canvas are the essences, both formal and thematic, of earlier cycles, 
the COUNTRY OUTING, the CONSTRUCTORS, the CYCLISTS, the 
DIVERS, and others, that engaged Leger in his late period, from 1940 
when he left France for the United States to 1955 when he died in the 
French town of Gif-sur-Yvette. 

That each of these cycles is based on a central motif linked to a specific 
plastic idea, and that the final state of each is the outcome of a determined 
search for the perfect solution should become clear from the contempla- 
tion of the fragments in their relationship to the final work. FIVE 
THEMES AND VARIATIONS then, is presented to visitors of the Solomon 
R. Guggenheim Museum as evidence of Fernand Leger's late and signif- 
icant achievement— one that on a comparable scope has not been seen 
before on this side of the Atlantic. 



13 



The GREAT PARADE is ten feet liigli and tliirteen feet long. It confronts 
us. as masterpieces often do. with a powerful but ambiguous impact. A 
mood of gay sadness prevails: monumentality is paired witli floating 
airiness: form and color become one and the same: surface and depth 
hise tlieir categoric meaning, cancelling and enhancing each otlier: finally, 
restraint and expressiveness, the withdrawal into an impassive and mys- 
terious surface charged, nonetheless, with emotional intensity, complete 
the listing of opposites that are resolved in a single statement. 

The large, black letter C at the very center of the huge canvas is all that 
remains from the word CIRQLE spelled out in earlier versions of the 
GREAT PARADE. Groups of clowns and of acrobats, a horse, a make- 
shift platform, poles, bells, boxes, ropes, the miscellaneous paraphernalia 
of the circus trade, set the stage. The performers face us impassively. 
They are real and easily recognizable for what they are. 

Nor is it diflicult to read the broader implication of Leger"s subject mat- 
ter, which in the GREAT PARADE is stated with more discreetness than 
in the immediately preceding themes of the COUNTRY OUTING, the 
CONSTRUCTORS, and the CYCLISTS. In all these paintings, construc- 
tion workers and vacationing bicyclists, picnic groups and circus folk 
are representing an ennobled working class which, in their relaxed infor- 
mality and their quiet bearing, reflect an ideal of modern man. It is 
Leger's vision of a proletarian aristocracy, served by the machine, and 
living in a state of complete iiarmonv within a technological world. 

The formal solution is consonant with the theme. A prominent rectangular 
shape in the left canvas half is balanced by an equally strong elliptic form 
on the right. The letter C which, as already mentioned, is a token toward 
the circus caption thus also becomes the pivot on which the two halves are 
hinged. The horizontal and the vertical are the principal directional 
accents, supplanting the diagonal primacy of the immediately preceding 
COUNTRY OUTING. Contrary to the obviously geometric concept of the 
earlier CONSTRUCTORS. Leger restrains the effect of a perpendicular 
organization and thereby avoids too complete a victory of the mechanical 
over the organic, human element. He provides, for the same reason, strong 
circular counterweights to linear accents, and tills the principal directional 



14 



stresses slightly so as to remove rectangular rigidities. The surface so 
organized reflects order without pedantry, and clarity without a pedes- 
trian precision. 

In constructing picture space, in creating depth. Leger employs means 
of the utmost sophistication. Born in a generation of artists that had 
already inherited a non-perspective convention, he sets out to create 
volumes that live in tiie shallow space of cubism. In his late work, how- 
ever, depth is rendered through a variety of devices which acliieve the 
desired results without divulging the means. In the GREAT PARADE 
shading is employed inconspicuously along the edges of circular bodies 
to create volume. Receding diagonals define the platform on the left, and 
three-dimensional boxes are rendered at the lower right. In general- 
quasi-perspective means are used to insinuate depth but are not allowed 
to impose themselves upon the work as a whole. Through pure color, and 
its projecting and receding qualities more than through any other single 
device, Leger achieves an animated spatial effect. As a result of this 
carefully balanced form-color play, his works live on borrowed depth, 
and the painting surface remains intact as such. 

The purest and richest of color schemes is employed for the GREAT 
PARADE. It consists of the three primaries— blue, red, yellow— and of 
two secondary colors— green and orange— the same formula that is used 
in the final state of the COUNTRY OUTING and in the great DIVERS. 
Violet, tlie third secondary, is withheld in this and other examples, sug- 
gesting the artist's preference for a color quintet. Colors then are either 
separated by white or vigorously contrasted witii one another and made 
to sing out with full voice. As in other late examples, Leger reserves grey- 
brown tonalities for natural or organic objects— clouds and clothing in 
the CONSTRUCTORS, the rope in the GREAT PARADE -to remind us 
of a lingering imperfection which has been all l>ut eliminated by the pure 
color vision of his art. 

A very characteristic feature in Leger's late painting is tlie separation of 
color from the confines of the linear pattern. A given shape, which as a 
representational symbol is depicted by a contour line, no longer con- 
tains color « illiiti it. Rather, color enters and departs as if of its own free 



15 



will. The last two culminating works, and many a preliminary version, 
allow color to live an independent life that is analogous, but not subordi- 
nated, to the separately developed linear pattern. 

The GREAT PARADE thus becomes a fugue of many parts in which each 
voice is fully developed and in which a counterpoint-composition of great 
richness and complexity is resolved in the simultaneous accord of all com- 
ponents. Realism and abstraction, form and color, surface and depth, be- 
come fully comprehensible only in their total application. While this is 
true of many modern works, the tension between polarities, the daring 
freedom of the separate components and their eventual unification is 
rarely, perhaps never, as grandly accomplished as in the GREAT PARADE. 



Although Leger has entered art history as one of the masters of 20th 
century painting, his work still is often misunderstood and his art, there- 
fore, is often termed literal in content and cerebral in form. Both of these 
are charges that can best be refuted by the GREAT PARADE. 

With its withheld meanings, its formal logic and its literal inconsistencies, 
this painting is clearly unsuited to convey a specific ideological message. 
It is destined to frustrate political objectives by detaching itself from the 
explicit level in favor of the general and the universal. Difficulties relating 
to the reading of Leger 's form are also best referred to his culminating 
work. For in it nothing is improvised and all is completed with geometric 
purity and with unequaled emotional restraint. Yet this classic balance 
evokes responses of great vitality and intensity, and the mutually en- 
hancing natiue of construction and of expression is exemplified in it to 
the fullest extent. 

It would seem, therefore, that Leger must be viewed again in the fullness 
of his work and that he must be seen without reference to existing assump- 
tions, as the maker of the DIVERS and of the CYCLISTS, the CONSTRUC- 
TORS, tiie COUNTRY OUTING and, above all, of the GREAT PARADE. 

Thomas M. Messer, Director 



16 



I. THE DIVERS 



Awaiting passage jrom the ivliarfs of Marseilles to America in 1940. Leger was impressed 
by the sight of young men diving into the waters of the Mediterranean. This impression, 
he wrote, was the initial stirniiltis for the Divers series. 

The Divers was not only a beginning, but simultaneously a resume of previous work. In 
1937. Leger had painted STUDY FOR THE COMPOSITION WITH TWO ACROBATS 
(no. 10), a recapitulation of a 1933 painting, in which he clearly pointed toward solu- 
tions he ivas to develop in monumental figure paintings, his principal late interest. This 
study, repeated in a drawing two years later I no. 1 ). uses heavy patterns of chiaroscuro 
emphasizing each separate part of the body, thereby achieving a reticent grace. 

One of the major problems, and eventual accomplishments, of the Divers series was to 
translate this static and monumental quality into fluid motion. Movement itself was 
explored in the extraordinary BLACK ROOT (no. 12). where a flat pattern tumbles with 
as much energy as do the figures in THE POLYCHROME DIVERS (no. 1 1} and THE 
DIVERS (no. 14) . Leger seems to have very consciously applied the lessons of abstract 
composition to the somewhat different problems of figure painting. 

In order to resolve afresh the visual conflicts among flat pattern, motion, and human 
monumentality. Leger developed in the Divers series his last great manner: the clear 
separation of isolated— almost abstract— passages of color from completely delineated 
form. For some time, hints of this technique had lain dormant in Leger s approach to 
picture construction. Chiaroscuro, especially the shadoivs on arm or leg or torso, had 
been extended so that it not only rounded a shape, but also established long swinging 
rhythms which emphasized the unified movement of the composition. In THE DIVERS 
(no. 2 ). an undated pencil drawing which was probably made early in the series, Leger 
contended with problems similar to those found in Baroque figure compositions: a 
complex twisting of form forward and backward in space. This interlocking group had 
to be realized by means that would exploit the patterned surface movement of figures, 
while retaining a distinct or abrupt sense of depth. By simplifying and extending the 
chiaroscuro patterns, even converting some of them into imposed swaths of color cutting 
across figure lines, Leger brilliantly reconciled abstract composition with the monu- 
mentality of the human body. (Compare no. 2 with nos. 13-19.) Thus, his solution to 
the paradoxical demands of surface anil depth was an extension of early cubist means: 
designing within a shalloiv space marked by sharp linear divisions, the cubists attained 
pictorial unity by spanning those linear divisions with passages of uniform color anil 
brush stroke. 



19 



1. STUDY FOR THE ACROBATS. 1939. Ink. 17Vi x 11". 
Lent by Robert Elkon Gallery, New York. 

2. THE DIVERS. (LES PLONGELIRS). n.d. Pencil. 20 x ISVs". 
Lent by Perls Galleries, New York. 

3. SKETCH FOR THE DIVERS. (ESQUISSE POUR LES PLONGEURS). 1941. Watercolor and gouache, 16% x 14%". 
Collection Ainie Maeght, Paris. 

4. STUDY FOR THE DIVERS. (ETUDE POUR LES PLONGEURS). 1941. Watercolor and gouache. 22V4 x 30". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Julian I. Raskin, New York. 

5. THE DIVERS. 1942. Gouache. 20V2 x 19". 
Lent by Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. 

Exhibition: 6th Exhibition of Paintings. Sidney Janis Gallery. New^ork. December-January 1961. no. 27. 

6. STUDY FOR THE DIVERS. (ETUDE POUR LES PLONGEURS). 1942. Gouache, 19 x 25". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Myrtil Frank. New York. 

7. THE DIVERS. (LES PLONGEURS). 1942. Gouache. 21% x 29%". 
Lent by Saidenberg Gallery, New York. 

8. JOY OF LIVING. (JOIE DE VIVRE). 1949. Gouache, 25% x 19%". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 

9. SKETCH FOR THE GRE.A.T DIVERS (BLACK). (ESQUISSE POUR LES GRANDS PLONGEURS (NOIRS)). 1944? 
Oil and gouache on paper. 35 Va x 47 ¥4". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Solomon Ethe, New York. 

Exhibition: Modem Masters. Ruse Fried Gallery. New ^ork. November-December 1960. 

10. STUDY FOR THE COMPOSITION WITH TWO ACROBATS. (ETUDE POUR LA COMPOSITION AUX DEUX 
PERROQUETSl. 1937. Oil on canvas. 63% x 38 ^i". Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris. Paris. 

Exhibitions: Fernand Leger. Musee de Lyon. Lyon. 1955. no. 52. 

Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs. Paris. June-October 1956, no. 91. 
Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst. Munich. March-May 1957. no. 79. 
JTegbereider, Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam. December-January 1957. no. 44. 

11. THE POLYCHROME DIVERS (1st VERSION). (LES PLONGEURS POLYCHROMES (ler ETAT)). 1941-42. 
Oil on canvas, 33 x 30%". Lent by Galerie Louis Carre. Paris. 

Exhibitions: Les Plongeurs, Jacques Seligmann & Co., New York. April 19-May 6, 1944, no. 5. 
Leger, 1912-1948, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, September 1948, no. 9. 
Fernand Leger, Svensk-Franska Konstgalleriet. Stockholm. 1948, no. 38. 
Fernand Leger. Kunsthalle, Basel, 1957, no. 78. 
Ifegbereider, Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam. December-January 1957. no. 51. 

12. THE BLACK ROOT. ( LA RACINE NOIR). 1941. Oil on canvas. 69='8 x 39%". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

Exhibitions: Fernand Leger, Svensk-Franska Konstgalleriet, Stockholm. 1948, no. 35. 

E.xposition Retrospective 1905-1949, Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris. October- November 1949, no. 71. 

Fernand Leger, Kunsthalle, Bern, 1952. no. 72. 

Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, June-October 1956. no. 102. 

Fernand Leger. Haus der Kunst. Munich. March-May 1957. no. 87. 

Wegbereider, Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam. December-January 1957, no. 48. 



20 



13. ROOT ON BLUE GROUND. ( RACINE SUR FOND BLEU ). 194L Oil on canvas. 68 '/s x 39%". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 

Exhibitions: Exposition Relrospectirc 1905-1949, Musee National d'Art Moderne. Paris, October-November 1949, no. 70. 
Feniand Leger, Kiinsthalle, Bern, 1952, no. 73. 

Leger. The Art Institute of Chicago, in collaljoration with The Mnseiun of Modern Art. New \(irk. The San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1953, no. 47. 
Feniand Leger, Kunsthalle, Basel, 1957, no. 77. 
Wegbereider, .Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam, December-January 1957, no. 48. 

14. THE DIVERS. (LES PLONGEURS). 1942. Oil on canvas, 49% x 351/2". 
Private Collection, New York. 

Exhiliiticin : Fi'rnand Leger. Musee des Arts Decoratifs. Paris. June-Oclober 1956, no. 1 16. 

15. THE CIRCULAR DIVERS. (LES PLONGEURS CIRCULAIRES). 1942. Oil on canvas. 58 x 50". 
Lent by Sidney Janis Gallery. New York. 

Exhibition: Major Themes. .*^idney Janis Gallery. New ^ork. January 1957. no. 21. 

16. THE DIVERS, RED AND BLACK. (LES PLONGEURS, ROUGE ET NOIR). 1942. Oil on canvas, 50 x 58V4". 
Lent by Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. 

Exhibitions: Major Themes, .Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, January 1957, no. 23. 

6th Exhibition of Paintings, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, December 1961, no. 10. 

17. THE TWO ACROBATS. (LES DEUX ACROBATES). 1942-43. Oil on canvas. .50 x .581/8". 
Lent by Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. 

Exhibitions: Fernand Leger, .Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, September 1952, no. 23. 
Fernand Leger. Musee de Lyon, Lyon, 1955, no. 52. 
Fernand Leger. Hans der Kunst, Munich, March-May 19.57, no. 79. 

18. THE RED .STAR. (L'ETOILE ROUGE I. 1942. Oil on canva.s, 31% x 26%". 
Lent by Perls Galleries, New York. 

Exhiliition: Fiirojiean Artists in the United States, Museum of Modern Art, (traveling). New York. Novend)er 1945-.lune 1946. 

19. THE BLUE AND BLACK DIVERS. (PLONGEURS EN NOIR ET BLEU). 1942-43. Oil on canva.s, 66 x 50y4". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Jacques Gelman. Mexico, D. F. 

Exhibitions: Enropean Artists in .4merira, Whitney Museum of .American Art. New York. March 13-April 11, 1945, no. 65. 
Struggle for New Forms. World House Gallery. New "^'ork. January-February 1957. no. 42. 

20. SKETCH FOR THE DIVERS. (ESQUISSE POUR LES PLONGEURS ). 1945. Oil on canvas. 76% x 57y8". 
Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris. Paris. 

21. JOY OF LIVING. (JOIK DE VIVREi. 19.53. Oil on canvas, 26y8 x28%". 
Lent by .Sidney Janis Gallery, New 'lork. 

22. THE GREAT DIVERS (BLACK). (LES GRANDS PLONGEURS (NOIRS)). 1944. Oil on canvas, 73% x 85%". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

Exhibitions: Les Plongeiirs, Jaccpies Seliginann & Co., New YVirk, April 19-May 6, 1944. no. 1. 
Oeuvres d'Ameriqne I940-194H. Galerie Louis Carre, Paris, 1946. no. 2. 
Fernand Leger. Kunsthalle. Herii. 1952. no. 79. 

Fernand Leger. Musee des Arts Decoratifs. Paris, June-October 19.56, no. 113. 
Fernand Leger, Kunsthalle, Basel, 1957, no. 85. 
Fernand Leger. Haus der Kunsl. Munich, March-May 1957, no. 98. 
Weghereider, .'^tedelijk Museum. Amsterdam. December-January 1957. no. 57. 



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22. The Great, Divers (Black). 1944. Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 



37 



II. THE CYCLISTS 



The theme of the Cyclists originated in America while Leger was still working on the 
Divers. In THE WOMEN CYCLISTS (nos. 29, 30), the relationship between the two 
series is perhaps most clearly visible in the entwining forms, whether human limbs or 
clouds or bicycle parts. But as the swaths of color are considerably more complicated, 
are used simultaneously with a form-modelling chiaroscuro, the surface is more broken 
up and even more consonant with the structure of an early cubist painting. 

Leger suggested that the I94S-49 HOMAGE TO LOUIS DAVID (no. 34) was so 
named to stress his definite return to simple and completely comprehensible subject 
matter. It also marked a return to the more static composition characteristic of his fig- 
urative paintings in the 1930's. A comparison among different versions of this theme 
indicates the degree to ivhich the effect of stolid monujnentality or greater abstraction 
and movement depends upon the absence or presence of color swaths. THE SPLENDID 
TEAM of 1944 (no. 31) has the same kind of clarity as HOMAGE TO LOUIS DAVID. 
Nevertheless, the sequential developments of certain elements in this picture lead to more 
dynamic adaptations in a still later variation ivhere independent color is introduced. 
Thus, the central figure in the SPLENDID TEAM holds a flower (no. 31), as does BIG 
JULIE (no. 32). The flotver is translated into a star on the jersey of the young boy in 
TWO CYCLISTS (no. 33) who also holds a branch similar to the one held by the man 
wearing a boater in the SPLENDID TEAM. The relationship between these two figures 
exemplifies the now modified relation between chiaroscuro pattern and color path, for 
the SPLENDID TEAM man's strongly modelled left arm. continued colu/Jin-like in his 
left leg, furnishes the basis for the developed color path running through the figure of 
the hoy cyclist in the later painting. 



39 



23. THE SPLENDID TEAM (STUDY). (LA BELLE EQUIPE (ETUDE) ). 1944. Ink with gouache. 11% x 17%". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

24. THE SPLENDID TEAM (LA BELLE EQUIPE). 1944. Ink on paper mounted on canvas, .31 Vs x 41%". 
Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris. 

25. THE CYCLISTS. 1944. Gouache, 11^2 x 16". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Saidenberg. New York. 

26. THE SPLENDID TEAM. (LA BELLE EQUIPE). n.d. Gouache, 22y2 x 30". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

27. BICYCLE RIDERS. 1944. Watercolor, liy2 x 13%". 

Collection Norton Gallery and School of Art. West Palm Beach. Florida. 

Exhibition: Neto Paintings, Valentine Gallery. New York, April 194.5. no. 2. 

28. MAN WITH BICYCLE. (L'HOMMEAU VELO). 1947. Gouache, 14% x 11%". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Fuller, New York. 

Exhibition: Leger, 1912-1948. Sidney Janis Gallery New York, September 1948. 

29. THE WOMEN CYCLISTS. (ESQUISSE POUR LES BELLES CYCLISTES (2me ETAT) ). 1944. Oil on canvas, 20 x 24". 
Lent by Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. 

Exhibitions: New Paintings, Valentine Gallery. New \ork. April 1945, no. 4. 

Leger, 1912-1948, Sidney Janis Gallery, New 'i'ork, September 1948, no. 13. 

Major Themes, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, January 1957, no. 24. 

6th Exhibition of Paintings, Sidney Janis Gallery. New York, December 1961, no. 12. 

30. THE WOMEN CYCLISTS. (LES BELLES CYCLISTES). 1944. Oil on canvas, 40 x 50". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Cummings. Chicago. 

Exhibitions: Pveio Paintings, Valentine Gallery, New \ork, April 1945. no. 3. 

Oeuvres d'Amerique 1940-1945, Galerie Louis Carre, Paris, 1946, no. 9. 

Leger, 1912-1948, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, September 1948, no. 12. 

Exposition Retrospective 1905-1949, Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris. October -November 1949, no. 78. 

Fernand Leger, Kunsthalle, Bern, 1952. no. 78. 

Modern Masters, International Galleries. Chicago, September-October 1961, no. 26. 



40 



31. THE SPLENDID TEAM. (LA BELLE EQUIPE). 194445. Oil on canvas, 44 Vs x 50". 
Lent by Galerie Louis Carre, Paris. 

Exhibitions: Oeuvres d'Amerique 1940-1945, Galerie Louis Carre, Paris, 1946, no. 10. 

La Figure dans I'Oeiivre de Leger, Galerie Louis Carre, Paris, 1952, no. 13. 

Fernand Leger, Kunsthalle, Bern, 1952, no. 82. 

XXVI Biennale, Section Frangaise, Venice, 1952, no. 87. 

Regards sur la peinture contemporaine, Musee Galliera. Paris. 1955. no. 56. 

Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, June-October 1956, no. 114. 

32. BIG JULIE. (LA GRANDE JULIE). 1945. Oil on canvas. 44 x 50". 

Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest. 
Exhibitions: New Paintings, Valentine Gallery, New York, April 1945. 

Leger, The Art Institute of Chicago, in collaboration with The Museum of Modern Art, New York, The San Francisco 

Museum of Art. 1953. no. 56. 

The Human Image. Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, October-November 1958, no. 65. 



33. TWO CYCLISTS. (DEUX CYCLISTES). 1951. Oil on canvas, 63% x 44%". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

Exhibitions: Fernand Leger, Musee de Lyon, Lyon, 1955, no. 77. 

Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris. June-October 1956, no. 137. 
Major Themes, Sidney Janis Gallery, New \<irk, January 1957, no. 26. 
Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst, Munich, March-May 1957, no. 121. 



34. HOMAGE TO LOUIS DAVID. (LES LOISIRS, HOMMAGE A DAVID). 1948-49. Oil on canvas. 60y2 x 72%". 
Collection Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris. 

Exhibitions: Exposition Retrospective 1905-1949, Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris. October-November 1949, no. 85. 
tferke Fran::dsischen Meister der Gegenwart, Hochschule fiir Bildende Kunst, Berlin, 1952, no. 30. 

Leger, The Art Institute of Chicago, in collaboration ivith The Museum uf Modern Art. New ^ork. The San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1953. no. 58. 
/// Bienal, Sao Paulo, 1955, no. 19. 

Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, June-October 1956, no. 127. 
Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst, Munich, March-May 1957, no. 111. 
Weghereider, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, December-January 1957, no. 66. 
Paintings from the Musee National d'Art Moderne, Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1957-58, no. 20. 



41 





24 



42 



26 






43 





44 




31. The Splendid Team. 1944-45. Lent by Galerie Louis Carre, Paris. 



45 




46 




47 




34. Homage to Louis David. 1948-49. Collection Miisee National d'Art Moderne, Paris 



49 



III. THE fOHTRlfTORS 



Leger's interest in the Cyclist theme was succeeded in the late 1940's by a new concen- 
tration : the Constructors. Relationships between the two themes are most obvious in the 
gouache CONSTRUCTORS WITH BICYCLES (no. 45), u'here the scaffolding and 
hence the visual situation, is firmly anchored to the ground, and a "belle equipe" sits 
beside parked bicycles like a formal group ivaiting to be tintyped. In a subsequent 
gouache (no. 43) the scaffolding is raised into the clouds, thus preparing for the set 
of variations exemplified by the 1951 METALLIC CONSTRUCTION (no. 54). Al- 
though absent here, circles recalling bicycle wheels were not to vanish entirely. In the 
COMPOSITION FOR THE CONSTRUCTORS (no. 51), they appear again, and the 
falling circles seem to establish a futurist ra-ta-ta-ta like the riveting noise they describe. 

THE CONSTRUCTORS WITH TREE (no. 47) is a close variant of the same subject 
in which refinements of design may be advantageously studied by comparing it with 
THE YELLOW CONSTRUCTORS WITH CHAIN (no. 48). The hoists have been 
further reduced to dice-like patterns, and the tree, a last reminiscence from early ver- 
sions vieived from the ground, has been replaced by a chain. Taking the viewer close 
into the scene, the CONSTRUCTORS (no. 49) perhaps relates to Leger's movie making 
activity. Similarly at close range, the 1951 CONSTRUCTORS (no. 50) presents in 
detail the strong and graceful gesture of the man signaling instructions with his hand. 
This figure, studied from the rear in COMPOSITION FOR THE CONSTRUCTORS 
(no. 51), had previously appeared in the gouache (no. 45). 

lAidders, chains, hoists, girders, trees, clouds, scaffolding, workers: Leger explored 
many aspects of building in the open air; but in only a few related works, as LAND- 
SCAPE WITH CONSTRUCTION (no. 44), did he introduce independent color swaths. 
This seeming neglect, however, undoubtedly arose because the firm geometry of the 
scaffolding and the bright flat color of vertical and horizontal girders against a blue sky 
fulfill many of the same design functions as do the color paths developed in earlier series. 



51 



35. THE CONSTRUCTORS (WITH ROPE). (LES CONSTRUCTEURS (PROFIL A LA CORDE)). 1951. Watercolor and ink. 
31% X 25%". Collection Musee Fernand Leger. Biot. 

36. THE CONSTRUCTORS (LEANING WORKMAN). (LES CONSTRUCTEURS (L'OUVRIER ACCOUDE)). 1951.1nk,3iy2x25%". 
Collection Musee Fernand Leger, Biot. 

37. STUDY OF HAND. (ETUDE DE MAIN). 1951. Ink, 25y4 x W^A". 
Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris. Paris. 

Exhibition: JTegbereider. Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam. December-January 1957. 

38. STUDY OF TROUSERS. (ETUDE DE PANTALON). 1951. Ink, 25y4 x 19y4". 
Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris. 

Exhiliitions: de Bouwers, Stedelijk Museum. .A.msterdam. 1952. 
Fernand Leger, Musee de Lyon. Lyons, 1955. no. 129. 
Fernand Leger. Hans der Kunst. Munich. March-May. 1957. no. 210. 

39. STUDY OF LEGS. (ETUDE DE JAMBES). 1951. Ink. 25y4 x 19y4". 
Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris. 

40. THE CONSTRUCTOR.'?— STUDY OF HAND. (LES CONSTRUCTEURS— ETUDE DE MAIN). 1951. Ink. 32% x 25%". 
Collection Musee Fernand Leger, Biot. 

41. THE CONSTRUCTORS— OCHRE HAND WITH DEFORMED FINGERS. (LES CONSTRUCTEURS— LA MAIN OCRE AUX 
DOIGTS DIFFORMES ). 1951. Watercolor and ink. 33 y2 x 26%". Collection Musee Fernand Leger. Biot. 

42. SCAFFOLDING ON BLUE GROUND. (L'ECHAFAUDAGE SUR FOND BLEU). 1950. Watercolor. 19V8 x 15%". 
Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris. Paris. 

43. STUDY FOR THE CONSTRUCTORS. (ETUDE POUR LES CONSTRUCTEURS). n.d. Gouache. 15 x 19y4". 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Adrien Maeght, Paris. 

i 

44. LANDSCAPE WITH CONSTRUCTION. SEINE ET OISE. (PAYSAGE AVEC CON.STRUCTION. SEINE ET OISE). n.d. 
Gouache, 19% x 24%". Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

Exhibitions: Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst. Munich, March-May 1957, no. 221. 

Dessins et Gouaches 1909-1955, Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris, February-March 1958, no. 79. 

45. THE CONSTRUCTORS WITH BICYCLES. 1950. Gouache, 22y2 x 19". 
Collection Julian J. and Joachim Jean Aberbach, New York. 

Exhibition : de Bouwers, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1952. 

46. THE CONSTRUCTORS ON BLUE BACKGROUND. (LES CONSTRUCTEURS SUR FOND BLEU), n.d. Gouache, 23 x 30%". 
Collection Madame Fernand Leger, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. 

Exhibition: Les Constructeurs, Maison de la Pensee Frangaise, Paris, 1951. 

47. CONSTRUCTORS WITH TREE. (CONSTRUCTEURS AVEC ARBRE). 1949-50. Oil on canvas, 42 y2 x 54%". 
Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris. 



52 



48. THE YELLOW CONSTRUCTORS WITH CHAIN. (LES 4 CONSTRUCTEURS SUR FOND JAUNE). 1950. 
Oil on canvas, 67% x TSVz". Lent by Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. 

Exhibitions: Fernand Leger, Cantine des Usines Renault a Billancourt, 1950. 
Lfs Constructeurs, Maison de la Pensee Fran(;aise. Paris, 1951. 
Fernand Leger, Musee de Lyon, Lyon, 1955, no. 73. 

Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, June-Oclober 1956, no. 134. 
Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst, Munich, March-May 1957. no. 118. 
Major Themes, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, January-February 1957, no. 27. 
6th Exhibition oj Paintings, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, December 1961, no. 14. 

49. THE CONSTRUCTORS. (LES CONSTRUCTEURS). 1950. Oil on canvas, 38 ¥4 x 51 ¥4". 
Collection L. G. Clayeux. Paris. 

50. CONSTRUCTORS. (CONSTRUCTEURS). 195L Oil on canvas, 38y4 x 5iy4". 
Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris. 

Exhibition: Fernand Leger. Haus der Kunst, Munich, Marcli-May 1957, no. 124. 

51. COMPOSITION FOR THE CONSTRUCTORS. (COMPOSITION POUR LES CONSTRUCTEURS). 1950. 
Oil on canvas, 63% x 45y4". Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

Exhibition: de Bouwers, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1952. 

52. THE CONSTRUCTORS, BLUE GROUND. 1950. Oil on canvas, 51'/8 x 35". 
Lent by Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. 

Exhibitions: 70th Anniversary Exhibition, Louis Carre Gallery, New York, 1951, no. 17. 
Fernand Leger, Kunsthalle, Bern, 1952. 
6th Exhibition of Paintings, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, December 1961, no. 16. 

53. CONSTRUCTORS WITH ROPE. (CONSTRUCTEURS AU CORDAGE). 1950-51. Oil on canvas, 63% x 4478". 
Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris. 

54. METALLIC CONSTRUCTION. (CONSTRUCTION METALLIQUE). 1951. Oil ou canvas, 25% x 2iy4". 
Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris. 

Exhibition: Fernand Leger, .Marlborough, London, 1955, no. 38. 

5.5. THE CONSTRUCTORS— MECHANICAL ELEMENTS IN SPACE. (LES CONSTRUCTEURS— ELEMENTS MECANIQUES 
DANS L'ESPACE). 1951. Oil on canvas, 5iy2 x 38 ¥4". Collection Musee Fernand Leaer, Biot. 

56. THE GREAT CONTRUCTORS (FINAL VERSION). (LES GRANDS CONSTRUCTEURS 1 ETAT DEFINlTlFii. 1950. 
Oil on canvas, 118% x 85y2". Collection Musee Fernand Leger, Biot. 

Exhibitions: Fernand Leger, Kunsthalle, Bern. 1952, no. 89. 

Leger, The .\rt Institute of Chicago, in collaboration with The Museum of Modern Art. New York. The San Francisco 

-Museum of Art, 1953, no. 59. 

Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, June-October 1956, no. 135. 

Fernand Leger, Kunsthalle, Basel, 1957. no. 90. 

Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst, Munich. March-May 1957. no. 119. 

Wegbereider, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, December-January 1957, no. 68. 



53 





54 





38 




55 





40 



41 



56 




42 




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44 



57 





58 




59 




60 





61 




62 




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64 





56. The Great Constructors (final version). 1950. C.ollertion Musee Fernand Leger,Biot. 



65 



IV. THE rOli.\TRV (IITIMJ 



In a general nay Lexers COUNTRY OUTING recalls Mailers DEJEUNER SUR 
UHERBE, for the subject involves an arrangement of clothed men— one in coat, tie and 
collar— uith almost nude uomen, placed in a pastoral setting. The people in Leger's 
painting might ivell be the families of his constructors, out for a brief jaunt in the coun- 
try. More specifically, the man examining the motor of his car in the final version 
(no. 74) recalls the figure in checkered cap who signals ivith a hand gesture in the 
Constructors series (nos. 49, 50, 51) ; and his juxtaposition by a ivheel probably owes 
something to the Cyclists series. 

Perhaps the earliest study for the COUNTRY OUTING is an ink drawing (no. 57) 
executed iji 1943 in New York. It is amusing to note that, while the disposition of the 
main figures is remarkably close to that of the final version, half of the composition is 
filled with a heap of discarded tin cans. Thus, although most of the forms ivere a part 
of Legers early vocabulary, the spirit in whicli he was to treat them changed tremen- 
dously during the following years. 

In arriving at this new interpretation, replacing all irony with an aura of gentle calm, 
the several studies of CONTENTMENT (nos. 58, 63, 64) have an important function. 
Eventually, these gouaches and drawings develop into THE CAMPERS (nos. 69. 70), 
but the motif of the seated woman as well as the child holding a ball, occur in the center 
fragments of COUNTRY OUTING (nos. 66. 68) tvhere an obvious element from the 
CONSTRUCTORS, the girder-like pole, is also retained. 

A particularly illuminating early version akin to the final composition is the 1951 
gouache, STUDY FOR THE COUNTRY OUTING (no. 61). This work again dem- 
onstrates Legers concern for designing the picture in strongly abstract terms even at 
an early stage of its development. IVhile the color swaths are already pronounced, 
especially one providing the circular rhythm so prominent in final versions of both 
the COUNTRY OUTING and THE GREAT PARADE, they are equal in vibrancy and 
freshness to the linear drawing of this fine study. 



67 



57. THE COUNTRY OUTING. (LA PARTIE DE CAMPAGNE). 1943. Ink. 11 x 13%". 
Collection Musee Fernand Leger, Biot. 

58. CONTENTMENT. (LE BONHEUR). n.d. Ink. 2."v'!8 x 19%". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

Exhibition: Fernand Leger, Stadtisches Museum. Leverkusen. 1955. no. 54. 

.59. MOTHER AND CHILD WITH ACCORDION. (L'ENFANT ET L'ACCORDEON ). 1951. Goua.he and ink, 20% x 29%". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 
Exhiliitiiin: La Figure ifans TOetivre de Leger. Galerie Louis Carre. Paris. 1952. no. 19. 

60. THE COUNTRY OUTING. (LA PARTIE DE CAMPAGNE i. 1951-52. Ink. 19% x 26". 
Collection L. G. Clayeux, Paris. 

61. .'^TUDY FOR THE COUNTRY OUTING. (ETUDE POUR LA PARITE DE CAMPAGNE*. 1951. Gouache. 15% x 201/2". 
Collection Maurice Lefebvre-Foiiiet, Paris. 

62. THE COUNTRY OUTING. (LA PARTIE DE CAMPAGNE). 19.5.3. Gouache. 23"'8 x 29%". 
Collection Musee Fernand Leger. Biot. 

63. CONTENTMENT (STUDY, 1st VERSION). (LE BONHEUR (ETUDE, ler ETAT) 1. n.,1. Gouache, 12% x 9%". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

Exhibition: Fernand Leger, Stadtisches Museum. Leverkusen. 1955. no. 54. 

64. CONTENTMENT. (LE BONHEUR). n.d. Gouache. 28 x 20". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Herbert C. Bernard, New York. 

65. THE COUNTRY OUTING. (LA PAHTIE DE CAMPAGNE). 1955. Gouache, 29 x 35Vs". 
Collection Musee Fernand Leger, Biot. 

66. THE COUNTRY OUTING (FRAGMENT). (LA PARTIE DE CAMPAGNE (FRAGMENT)). 1952-.53. Oil on canvas, 63%x41". 
Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris. 

Exhibitions: Oeuvres Recentes, Maison de la Pensee Fran^aise, Paris, 1954. no. 40. 
Fernand Leger, Stadtisches Museum, Leverkusen, 1955, no. 16. 
Hommage a Leger, Salon de Mai, Paris, 1956, no. 104. 

Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, June-October 1956, no. 145. 
Fernand Leger, Kunsthaus, Basel, 1957, no. 98. 
Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst, Munich, March-May 1957, no. 129. 

67. SKETCH FOR THE COUNTRY OUTING. (ESQUISSE POUR LA PARTIE DE CAMPAGNE). 1953-54. 
Oil on canvas, 23% x 36y4". Collection L. G. Clayeux, Paris. 



68 



68. THE COUNTRY OUTING (CENTER FRAGMENT). (LA PARTIE DE CAMPAGNE (FRAGMENT DU CENTRE)). 1954. 
Oil on canvas. 76% x 76%". Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris. Paris. 

Exhibitions: Oeuvres Recentes, Maison de la Pensee Frangaise, Paris. 1954. no. 43. 
Fernand Leger, Stadtisches Museum, Leverkusen, 1955. no. 21. 
Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris. June-October 1956, no. 148. 
Fernand Leger. Haus der Kunst. Munich. March-May 1957. no. 130. 
Wegbereider, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, December-January 1957, no. 73. 

69. THE CAMPER fist VERSION). (LE CAMPEUR (ler ETAT)). 1954. Oil on canvas, 63% x 5iys". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Ira Haupt, Asbury Park, New Jersey. 

Exhibition: Oeuvres Recentes, Maison de la Pensee Frangaise, Paris, 1954, no. 48. 

70. THE CAMPER. (LE CAMPEUR— COULEUR EN DEHORS). 1943-54. Oil on canvas. SPA x 38 'A". 
Lent by Sidney Janis Gallery. New York. 

Exhibitions: Oeuvres Recentes. Maison de la Pensee Frangaise, Paris, 1954. 
Fernand Leger. .Stadtisches Museum, Leverkusen. 1955, no. 22. 
6th Exhibition of Paintings, Sidney Janis Gallery. New York. December 1961, no. 18. 

71. TWO WOMEN HOLDING FLOWERS. (DEUX FEMMES TENANT DES FLEURS). 1954. Oil on canvas, 38V4 x SVA". 
Lent by the Trustees of the Tate Gallery, London. 

Exhibitions: Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs. Paris, June-October 1956. no. 160. 
Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst, Munich. March-May 1957, no. 141. 

72. MOTHER AND CHILD. (MERE ET ENFANT). 1955. Oil on canvas, 28% x 36%". 
Lent by Galerie Louise Leiris. Paris. 

Exhibition: Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst. Munich, March-May 1957, No. 143. 

73. COMPOSITION WITH BIRDS ON YELLOW BACKGROUND. (COMPOSITION AUX OISEAUX SUR FOND JAUNE). 1955. 
Oil on canvas. 53% x 35". Collection Musee Fernand Leger. Biot. 

Exhibitions: Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, June-October 1956, no. 162. 
Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst. Munich, March-May 1957. no. 144. 
Ifegbereider, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. December-January 1957, no. 8. 

74. THE COUNTRY OUTING (FINAL VERSION). (LA PARTIE DE CAMPAGNE (ETAT DEFINITIF)). 1954. 
Oil on canvas. 96 y2 x llSVs". Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

Exhibitions: Oeuvres Recentes, Maison de la Pensee Fran(;aise, Paris, 1954, no. 44. 
Fernand Leger, Stadtisches Museum, Leverkusen, 1955, no. 19. 
Hommage a Leger, Salon de Mai, Paris, 1956. no. 153. 

Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs. Paris. June-October 1956, no. 149. 
Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst. Munich. Marcli-May 1957. no. 1,32. 
Ifegbereider, Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam, December-January 1957, no. 77. 



69 





58 



70 







71 





72 




65 




67 



73 




66 



74 




75 




76 





77 





78 




74. The Coantry Outing (final version). 1954. Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 



79 



V. THE GREAT PARADE 



THE GREAT PARADE embodies an enormous number of combinations, adaptations 
and references which draw on roots developed even earlier than the genesis of the Divers 
series. .A brief consideration of these gives a vivid impression of the artist's working 
method. 

As early as 1940, the highly finished drawing ACROBATS AND MUSICIANS (no. 75), 
for example, demonstrates how clear were ideas for many elements in THE GREAT 
PARADE. Within a vertical format, the composition includes a variation of the climbing 
ACROBATS of 1937 (no. 10), the great THREE MUSICIANS (no. 100), drawn from a 
motif developed in 1924, and a circus performer holding his partner horizontally, at 
chest height. These motifs were to appear in dozens of paintings and studies. In the 
1945 painting, THE MUSICIANS (no. 102), all three are found again, but with the 
positions of musicians and acrobats reversed, and the horizontal direction of the final 
version already established. Ultimately, Leger was to retain only a distillation from his 
musician groups— the musician-clown who was realized independently in the 1949 
GREAT PARADE (no. 104). Hoivever. the beautiful ink drawing ACROBATS AND 
MUSICIANS (no. 78), executed only a year before the final version, shoivs that even 
then he gave serious reconsideration to the earlier composition. 

The circus performer holding his partner across his chest reappears in a quantity of 
work from 1952 and 1953. In a series of gouaches entitled GREAT PARADE (nos. 85, 
86. 87), this pair is juxtaposed beside the climbing ACROBATS (nos. 1, 10), while in 
ACROBATS (no. 84) the two figures are composed beside a horse's head. They appear 
as trapezists in another small gouache, ACROBATS (no. 97), and with a wheel, recalling 
the bicycle theme, in the 1952 ink drawing (no. 76). One set of variations exemplified 
by the gouache GREAT PARADE, STUDY (no. 88), places such emphasis on the open, 
wheel-like circles of dumbbells, that it is not unlikely Leger might have considered 
placing the climbing acrobats on a bicycle. 



81 



Instead, the two acrobats motif was significantly modified hy placing the figures atop 
a horse, as in THE HI E CLOWI\S (no. 105). adding a fresh dimension to the ga)' 
spirit of the theme. This new addition, the horse, made its first circus appearance in 
the 1943 oil, TRAPEZISTS AND JUGGLER (no. 101). Its role was va.^tly increased in 
RIDER AND JUGGLER (no. 82), a small 1948 gouache where the horses head is turned 
against its body. By 1953. the horse was such an important member of Leger's circus 
troupe that it received almost individual attention in the ACROBAT 0\ HORSEBACK 
(no. 106), sharing the spotlight only tvith an acrobat in wild motion, remembered from 
the 1948 painting, ACROBAT AND HIS PARTNER (no. 103). 

Despite the reiteration of so many familiar forms, one fresh and major group of figures 
not present in the 1940 drawing (no. 75) has a crucial place in the final version of THE 
GRE.4T PARADE. This is the composition which finally replaced the Three Mu.sicians 
scheme: two dancers and the clown-musician. It was virtually achieved in the 1949 
painting. GREAT PARADE (no. 104). in conjunction with a tumbler who strongly 
recalls the Divers series. Previously, however, the little dancer had been a rider on 
horseback, as may be noted in the 1948 gouache I no. 82) . and a trace of her side.^addle 
daring nas subsequently retained in the many adaptations showing JUGGLER AND 
ACROBAT (no. 98) or JUGGLER AND DANCER (no. 109). The quality arrived at 
by combining both dancer and rider is emphasized in the 1953 oil. DAi\CER W ITH 
HORSE (no. 108). 

These combinations indicate the thorough calculations of Fernand Leger. }ears before 
the final version, with a virtually complete repertory of forms at his disposal, he at- 
tempted every possible adaptation and interchange. If hile this process continued, and 
the other themes ivith their discoveries in terms of color swaths and movement proceeded, 
the circus conception changed from a relatively static assembly of figures to the monu- 
mental and rhythmic GRE.4T PARADE. 



82 



75. ACROBATS AND MUSICIANS. 1940. Charcoal. 39 x UVi". 
Colleclion Mr. ami Mrs. Daniel .'^aidenberg. New York. 

76. ACROBATS WITH A WHEEL. (LES ACROB.\TES A LA ROUE). 1952. Ink, 19% x 23%". 
Colleclion L. G. Clayeux. Paris. 

77. ACROBAT WITH BIRD. (L'ACROBATE A L'OISEAU). 1952. Ink. 9 x 9%". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 

78. ACROBATS AND MUSICIANS. (LES ACROBATES ET LES MUSICIANS). 1953. Ink. 24% x 30". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 

79. ACROBAT AND JUGGLER.S. (L'ACROBATE ET LES JONGLEURS), 1953. Ink, 13 x 19%". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

80. THE GREAT PARADE (SKETCH). (LA GRANDE PARADE (ESQUISSE)). 1953. Ink, 9 x eVs". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

81. RIDER ON YELLOW BACKGROUND. (L'ECUYERE SUR FOND JAUNE). 1954. Ink and walercolor, 6% x SVs". 
Collection Aime Maeghl, Paris. 

82. RIDER AND JUGGLER. (ECUYERE ET JONGLEUR). 1948. Gouache. <i% x UVz". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 

83. CLOWNS AND HORSES. (CLOWNS ET CHEVAUX ). 1952 or 1953. Gouache, 15% x 23 Vi". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 



84. ACROBATS. (ACROBATES). 1952 or 1953. Gouache. 14% x 16y2". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

8.5. THE GREAT PARADE. (LA GRANDE PARADE). 19.52. Gouache. .38% x 49%". 
Collection Musee Fernand Leger, Biot. 

86. THE GREAT PARADE. (LA GRANDE PARADE). 1952? Gouache. 27% x .33%". 
Collection Musee Fernand Leger, Biot. 

Exhibition: Desshis ct Gouaches, 19091955, Galerie Louise Leiris. Paris, 1958, no. 84. 

87. THE GREAT PARADE. (LA GRANDE PARADE). 19.52. Gouache. 36'4 x 47V4". 
Collection Musee Fernand Leger, Biot. 

88. THE GREAT PARADE (STUDY). (LA GRANDE PARADE (ETUDE)). 1953. Gouache. 30V4 x 44'4". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 

89. THE GREAT PARADE (STUDY). (LA GRANDE PARADE (ETUDE)). 1953. Gouache, 30'4 x 44U". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

90. STUDY FOR THE GREAT PARADE. ( ETUDE POUR LA GRANDE PARADE). 19.5.3. Gouache. 20"'8 x .iO'4. 
Collection Ainic Maeght. Paris. 



83 



91. DANCER WITH BIRDS. (LA DANSEUSE AUX OISEUX). 1953. Gouache, 23% x 18". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 

Exhibition: Fernand Leger, Stadtisches Museum. Leverkusen, 1955. 

92. THE PARADE. (LA PARADE). 1953. Gouache. 20% x 30%". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 

93. ACROBAT AND HORSE. (L'ACROBATE ET LE CHEVAL). n.d. Gouache. 25% x 19%". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 

94. WOMAN AND CHILD. (LA FEMME ET L'ENFANT). n.d. Gouaclie. 24x20". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

95. RIDER AND CLOWN. (ECUYERE ET CLOWN). 1953? Gouache. 16% x 13". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

96. ACROBATS WITH PARROT (YELLOW BACKGROUND). (ACROBATES AU PERROQUET (FOND JAUNE)). 
n.d. Gouache. 12% x 19%". Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

97. ACROBATS. (ACROBATES). 1953.' Gouache. 19% x 12%". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

98. JUGGLER AND ACROBAT. (JONGLEUR ET L'ACROBATE). 1953. Gouache, 9% x 12%". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris, 

99. THE CLOWN ( CATALOGUE COVER ). (LE CLOWN (COUVERTURE CATALOGUE) ). 1955. Gouache, 12ys x 8%". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

100. THREE MUSICIANS. 1924-44. Oil on canvas, 68% x 57V4". 

Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Mrs. Simon Guggenheim Fund. 

Exhibitions: Neiv Paintings, ^alentine Gallery, New ^ork, April 1945. no. 1. 

La Figure dans I'Oeurre de Leger. Gallerie Louis Carre. Paris. 1952. no. 9. 

Leger. The Art Institute of Chicago, in collaboration with The Museum of Modern Art, New York, The San Francisco 

Museum of Art. 1953. no. 55. 

/// Bienal, Sao Paulo, 1955, no. 5. 

Fernand Leger. Musee des Arts Decoratifs. Paris. June-(Jctober 1956, no. 77, 

Fernand Leger. Kunsthalle, Basel, 1957. no. 86. 

Fernand Leger. Haus der Kunst, Munich. March-May 1957, no. 99. 

Ifegbereider, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, December-January 1957, no. 58. 

101. TRAPEZISTS AND JUGGLER. (LES TRAPEZISTES ET JONGLEUR). 194.3. Oil on canvas, 44% x 50%". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 

Exhibitions : Fernand Leger, Musee de Lyon, Lyon, 1955, no. 58. 

Fernand Leger. Musee des Arts Decoratifs. Paris. June-October 1956. no. 107. 
Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst. Munich. March-May 1957, no. 92. 

102. THE MUSICIANS (PROJECT FOR THE GREAT PARADE). (LES MUSICIANS (PROJET POUR LA GRANDE PARADE)). 

1945. Oil on canvas. 44% x 57V2". (Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 
Exhibitions: Fernand Leger. Musee de Lyon, Lyon, 1955, no. 64. 

Fernand Leger. Stadtisches Museum. Leverkusen. 1955. no. 1. 

Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs. Paris, June-October 1956, no. 115. 

Fernand Leger. Haus der Kunst. Munich. March-May 1957. nu. 100. 

Uegbereider, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, December-January 1957, no. 59. 



84 



10.?. ACROBAT AND HIS PARTNER. ( L'ACROBATE ET SA PARTENAIRE ). 1948. Oil on canvas. f)2V2 x 72%". 
Collection Aime Maeght. Paris. 

Exhibitions : Fernand Leger, Musee de Lyon, Lyon. 1955. no. 66. 

Fi'rnand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris. June-October 1956. no. 125. 
Fernand Leger. Haus der Kunst. Munich. March-May 1957 no. 109. 
Wegbereider, Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam, December-January 1957, no. 64. 

104. THE GREAT PARADE. (LA GRANDE PARADE l. 1949. Oil on canvas. 37 x 51". 
Olieclion Robert Mayer. Winnetka. Illinois. 

105. THE FIVE CLOWNS. (LES CINQ CLOWNS ). 1953. Oil on canvas. 72% x 62". 
Collection Musee Fernand Leger, Biot. 

Exhibitions: Oeuvres Rerentes, Maison de la Pensee Fran(;aise. Paris. 1954. no. 37. 
Fernand Leger, Musee de Lyon, Lyon. 1955. no. 85. 
Fernand Leger, Stadtisches Museum. Leverkusen. 1955. no. 12. 
Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs. Paris. June-October 19.56. no. 153. 
Hommage a Leger, Salon de Mai. Paris, 1956. no. 105. 
Fernand Leger, Kunsthalle. Basel. 1957. no. 99. 

Fernand Leger, Haus der Kunst. Munich. March- .May 1957. no. 133. 
Wegbereider. Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. Deceinber-January 1957, no. 74. 

106. ACROBAT ON HORSEBACK. ( L-ACROBATE AU CHEVAL). 1953. Oil on canvas. 36 x 25 'V'. 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Charles Zadok. New York. 

Exhibitions: Oeuvres Rerentes, Maison de la Pensee Francaise. Paris. 19.54. no. ,34. 
Fernand Leger, Musee de Lyon. Lyon, 1955. no. 98. 
Fernand Leger, Stadtisches Museum. Leverkusen. 1955, no. 10. 

107. TWO ACROBATS AND THREE BIRDS. ( DEUX ACROBATES ET TROIS OlSEAUX i. 1953. Oil on canvas. 23 'i x 36i'4". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Charles Zadok. New York. 

108. DANCER WITH HORSE. (LA DANSEUSE AU CHEVAL). 1953. Oil on canvas. 36 x 25V'2". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Charles Zadok, New York. 

Exhibitions: Oeuvres Recentes. Maison de la Pensee Francaise. Paris. 1954. no. 33. 
Fernand Leger. .'>ta(hisches Museum. Leverkusen. 1955, no. 9. 

109. THE JUGGLER AND THE DANCER. (LE JONGLEUR ET LA DANSEUSE). 19,54. Oil on canvas, SB'/j x50%". 
Lent l)y Sidney Janis (Jaliery, New \ork. 

E.\hil)ilion ; Major Themes, .Sidney Janis Gallery. New ^urk. .laiuiary 1957. no. 29. 

no. THE GREAT PARADE. (E.SQUISSE POUR LA GRANDE PARADE i. 1953-54. Oil on canvas. 25% x 36V'4". 
Lent by .Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. 

Exhibition: Major Themes. Sidney Janis Gallery. New ^ork, January 1957, no. 28. 

111. THE GREAT PARADE (FINAL VERSION). (LA GRANDE PARADE (ETAT DEFTNITIF)). 1954. Oil on canvas. 120 x 160". 
Collection Aime Maeght, Paris. 

Exhibitions: Oeuvres Rerentes, Maison de la Pensee Francaise, Paris, 1954. no. 17. 
/// Riena/. S5o Paulo, 1955. no. 28. 

Fernand Leger, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, J une-Oclober 1956, no. 157. 
Fernand Leger, Kunsthalle, Basel, 1957, no. 102. 
Fernand Leger. Haus der Kunst, Munich, March-May 19,57. no. 1.38. 
ifegbereider, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Deceml)er-January 1957, no. 78. 



85 





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lUa. The Great Parade. 1954. (detail) Collection Aime Maeght, Paris, (romplcle final version on page 12) 



101 



BIBLIOliRAPHV 



The following listing is based on the annotated bibliography compiled by 
Miss Hannah B. Muller for Douglas Cooper, Fernand Leger et le Nouvel 
Espace, Geneva, Editions des Trois CoUines, 1949. M. Francois Mathey's bibli- 
ography in Fernand Leger 1881-1955, the 1956 catalogue to the Leger exhibi- 
tion organized by the Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, which carried Miss 
Mailer's listing through 1956, has also been consulted. A selective listing of 
the voluminous material on Leger, compiled by Miss Muller as an accompani- 
ment to her earlier bibliography, may be found in Katherine Kuh, Leger, The 
University of Illinois Press. Urbana, 1953. The present listing, which covers 
the years through 1961, does not include references to newspaper notices or 
to catalogues of every Leger exhibition. The three divisions of the bibliography : 
By the Artist; Interviews with Leger; Periodicals and Books, are each ar- 
ranged chronologically. 



103 



BV THE ARTIST 

1913 '"Les Origines de la Peinture et sa valeur representative." Montjoie, Paris, vol. 1, no. 8. 1913, p. 7, nos. 9-lC, pp. 9-10. 

1914 "Realisations picturales actuelles." Soirees de Paris, Paris, no. 25, 1914, pp. 351-356. 

1919 "Pensees." Valori Plastici, nos. 2-3, 1919, p. 2. Also in Selection, Antwerp, no. 2, Sept. 15. 1920. 

7923 "L'Esthetique de la Machine: L'Objet fabrique, L'Artisan et I'Artiste." Der Querschnitt, Berlin, vol. 3, 1923, pp. 122-129. Translation in 

Little Review, New York, vol. 9, no. 3. Spring. 1923. pp. 45-49. vol. 9, no. 4, 1923-1924. pp. 55-58. 

"Kurzgefasste Auseinandersetzung iiber das aktuelle Kiinstlerische Sein." Das Kiinstblatt. Berlin, vol. 7, 1923, pp. 1-4. 
1924 "Correspondance (with M. Leonce Rosenberg)." Bulletin de I'Effort Moderne. Paris, no. 4, April, 1924, pp. 10-12. 

"Reponse a une Enquete: Oii va la Peinture Moderne?" Bulletin de I'Effort Moderne, Paris, no. 2. February, 1924, p. 5. 

"Reponse a une Enquete sur le Cubisme." Bulletin de la Vie Artistique, Paris, vol. 5, no. 21, November, 1924, p. 486. 

"Le Spectacle." Bulletin de I'Effort Moderne. Paris, no. 7, 1924, pp. 4-7: no. 8. pp. 5-9: no. 9, pp. 7-9. 

"Film by Fernand Leger and Dudley Murphy, Musical Synchronism by George Antheil." Little Review, New York. vol. 10. no. 2, 1924, 

pp. 42-44. 
7925 "Le Ballet-Spectacle; I'Objet-Spectacle." Bulletin de I'Effort Moderne. Paris, no. 12. February. 1925, p[i. 7-9. 

"Vive -Relache'." Bulletin de I'Effort Moderne, Paris, no. 13, March, 1925, pp. 7-9. 

"Les Bals Populaires." Bulletin de I'Effort Moderne, Paris, no. 12. February. 1925. pp. 9-10: no. 13. March. 1925. pp. 4-5. 

".Sehr Aktuell .Sein." Europa Almanach, Potsdam, Kiepenheur, 1925, pp. 13-16. 

"Conference sur FEsthetique de la Machine, au College de France." in Florent Fels. Propos d' Artistes, Paris, La Renaissance du Livre, 

1925, pp. 98-106. 

"Notations on Plastic Values." catalogue, Anderson Galleries, New York, Societe Anonynie. 1925. 

"Peinture et Cinema." Cinema, Paris, Emile-Paul, 1925, pp. 107-108. 

"A New Realism — the Object (its Plastic and Cinematographic Value)." Little Review, New York. vol. 11. no. 2. 1925. pp. 7-8. Reprinted in 

Lewis Jacobs, ed.. Introduction to the .Art of the Movies. New York, Noonday, 1960, pp. 96-98. 

7927 "Citation." in Maurice Raynal, Anthologie de la Peinture en France. Paris, Editions Montaigne. 1927. pp. 205-206. 

7928 "Meine Berliner Ausstellung." Der Querschnitt, Berlin, vol. 8, no. 1, 1928, pp. 35-37. 

"La Rue: Objets, Spectacles." Cahiers de la Repuhliques des Lettres, des Sciences et des Arts. I!eaux-Art>. Pari^. 1928. vol. 12, pp. 102-104. 

7929 "Pensees sur I'Art." in Waldemar George, Fernand Leger, Paris, Gallimard, 1929, p. 14. 
"Actualites." Varietes, Brussels, vol. 1, no. 9, 1929, pp. 522-525. 

7937 "A propos du Cinema." Plans, Paris, no. 1, 1931, pp. 80-84. 

"De I'Art Abstrait." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 6, no. 3, 1931, pp. 151-152. 

"New York vu par Fernand Leger." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 6. nos. 9-10, 1931, pp. 437-439. 

"Einleitung zum Katalog der Ausstellung 'Alexander Calder'." Galerie Percier, Paris, 1931. 
7932 "Chicago." Plans, Paris, no. 11, January, 1932, pp. 63-68. 
193.3 "L'Art est entre en Cambrioleur." Mouvement, Paris, no. 1, June, 1933. pp. 17-18. 

"Discours aux Architects." Quadrante, Milan, vol. 5, September. 19.33. pp. 44, 47. 

7934 "Le Beau et le Vrai." Beaux-Arts, Paris, vol. 73, no. 58, 1934, p. 2. 

7935 "Reponse a une Enquete: Que feriez-vous, si vous aviez a organiser FExposition de 1937?" Vu, Paris, no. 387, August, 1935, p. 1102. 
"The New Realism; Lecture Delivered at the Museum of Modern Art." Art Front, New York, vol. 2. no. 8. December, 1935, pp. 10-11. 
"Reponse a une enquete sur I'art daujourd'hui." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 10. nos. 1-4, 1935, pp. 64-66. 68. 

7936 "Painting and Reality." Transition, New %rk, no. 25, 19.36, pp. 104-108. 

7937 "Apropos of ("olor." Transition, New York, no. 26. 1937, p. 81. 

"L'Art Mural de Victor Sevranckx." Clarte, Brussels, vol. 10, no. 7, 1937. pp. 20-21. 

"Sur la peinture." L'E.xposilion 1937 et les .irtistes a Paris, Paris, Arts. Sciences, Leitres. pp. 20-29. 

"Revival of Mural Art." The Listener, London, vol. 18, no. 450, August, 1937, pp. 403, 409. 
793S "Beauty in Machine Art." Design. Columbus, Ohio. vol. 39, March, 1938, pp. 6-7. 

"Preface." Fernand Leger, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1938, pp. 4-5. 

"Couleur dans le Monde." L'Homme. la Technique, la Nature, foreword by Jean Cassou, Paris, Rieder, 1938. pp. 105-120. 
7939 "Reponse a une enquete: L'Acte createur se ressent-il de I'influence des evenements environnants ..." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 14, no. 4, 

1939, pp. 70-72. 

"The Question of 'Truth'." .Architectural Forum, New York, vol. 70. February. 1939. pp. 138-141. 
7947 "New York-Paris, Paris- New \ork." La Voi.x de France, no. 15. .September. 1941, p. 10. 

"Un Art nouveau sous le ciel Californien." La Voix de France, no. 1. November. 1941. ji. 8. 
7942 "Decouvrir I'Amerique." La Voix de France, no. 15, May, 1942. p. 9. 
7944 "Byzantine Mosaics and Modern Art." Magazine of Art, Washington, D. C. vol. 37. April, 1944, pp. 144-145. 



104 



1945 "Relationship between Modern Art and Contemporary Industry." Modern Art in Advertising: an exhibition of Designs tor Container Corpo- 
ration of America, Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago, 1945, pp. 4-5. 

"A propos du corps huniain considere comme un objet." Fcrnand Leger. La Forme humaine dans I'Espace, Montreal. Editions de TArbre. 
1945, pp. 63-75. 

1946 "L'Oeil du peintre." Varietes, Paris, no. 3. 1946, p. 44. 

"Modern .Architecture and Color."' American Abstract Artists. New York, 1946. pp. 31. 34-35. 37-38. 
"Le Peuple et les Arts." Bulletin de Travail et Culture, Paris. .lune-July, 1946. pp. 35-36. 
"Causeries sur I'Art." Arts de France, no. 6, 1946, pp. 36-42, 

1947 "Temoignage." Pour et centre I'Art abstrait, Paris, Arte Una, 1947. 

194S "Color in Architecture." in Stamo Papadaki, Le Corbusier, New York. Macmillan. 1948. pp. 78-80. 

1949 "Que signifie: Etre Temoin de son Temps?" Arts, Paris, no. 205. March 11. 1949. p. 1. 
"Un nouvel espace en architecture." Art d'Aujourd'hui, Boulogne, no. 3. 1949. p. 19. 
"L'Art Abstrait." Derriere le Miroir, Paris. Pierre a Feu. nos. 20-21, 1949, p. 9. 

1950 "Calder." Derriere le Miroir. Paris. Pierre a Feu, no. 31, 1950, p. 7. 
L,e Cirque. Text and 35 original lithographs. Paris, Teriade, 1950. 

1951 "Situation de la Peinture dans le temps actuel." Biennale, Venice, no. 5, 1951. p. 19. 
"L'Architecture moderne et la couleur." Formes et Vie, Paris, no. 1, 1951, pp. 24-26. 

1952 "Temoignage: L'Espace." XXe Siecle, Paris, no. 2, 1952, pp. 67-68. 

"La peinture moderne devant le monde actuel." Lettres Frangaises, Paris, no. 405, March 13, 1952, pp. 1. 9. 

1953 "Statement." Sculptures Polychromes de Fernand Leger, Galerie Louis Carre, Paris, January, 1953. 
"Comment je consols la figure." La Figure dans Voeuvre de Leger, Paris, Louis Carre, 1953, pp. 29-33. 
"Vers FArchitecture." in Catalogue Exposition L. Carre, Paris, 1953. 

1954 "Sens de I'Art moderne." Zodiaque, Saint-Leger-Vauban. nos. 18-19, 1954, pp. 37-40. 

"Reflexions sur I'integration de la peinture et de la sculpture dans I'architecture." / 4 Soli, Turin, no. 1, 1954, p. 8. 
"La vie fait I'oeuvre de Fernand Leger." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 2, 1954, pp. 133-172. 

1955 "Les Mains des constructeurs." Heures Claires, Paris, no. 123, 1955, pp. 18-19. 

"Comment cela commence." Les Lettres Frangaises, Paris, no. 582, 1955, foreword to Fernand Leger by Pierre Descargues. 

1956 "Lettre de Leger a un ami." Quadrum. Brussels, no. 2, 1956, pp. 77-80. 



IJ^TEItVIEWS 

1932 Cogniat, R. "Chez Fernand Leger." Beaux-.4rts, Paris, vol. 72. no. 16. April 21, 1932. pp. 1-2. 
1935 "Oil va la peinture: Interview." Commune, Paris, no. 2, May, 1935. pp. 944-946. 

"Pity us! Interview." Art Digest, New York, vol. 10, October, 1935, p. 26 (reprint from the New York Herald Tribune). 
1939 I. P. "Fernand Leger pendant son sejour en Amerique a fait des conferences a TUniversite de Yale." Beaux-.4rts. Paris, vol. 76. no. 326. 

March 31, 1939, p. 1. 
1946 Gromaire. F. "L'avenir est a la couleur, nous dit Fernand Leger. peintre et cineaste." Ecran Frangaise, Paris, vol. 4. no. 40, 1946, p. 11. 

Warned, A. "L'Amerique, ce n'est pas un pays, c'est un monde, dit Fernand Leger." Arts, Paris, no. 49, January, 1946. 

Translation into English: Architectural Forum, New York, vol. 84, April, 1946, pp. 50. 54, 58, 62. 

1948 Descargues, P. "F. Leger. Interview." Arts, Paris, no. 147, January 2, 1948, pp. 1, 5. 

"Fernand Leger et ses eleves vont decorer TExposition Internationale des Femmes." Arts, Paris, no. 168, May 28, 1948, p. 1. 
''Doit-on reformer I'enseignement des Beaux-Arts." Traits, Paris, no. 4, 1948, pp. 1. 8. 

1949 Howe, R. W. "Chalk and Cheese: Puy and Leger." Apollo, London, vol. 50. 1949. pp. 31-38. 

1952 Favre, L.-P. "Quel paysage avez-vous choisi? Fernand Leger." .4rts, Paris, no. 367, July 10. 1952, p. 10. 

Taillandier. Y'. "Une enquete: L'Art et le climat visuel contemporain. " .Sa/on de Mai. catalogue. Paris. 1952, p. 1. 

1954 Marceau. M. "Interview mit Leger." Magnum, Frankfurt, no. 3. 1954. 

Vallier, D. "La vie fait I'ceuvre de Fernand Leger." Cahiers d'.4rt, Paris, vol. 2, 1954, pp. 133-139. 

1955 Bordier, R. "Polychromie architecturale." Aujourd'hui, Art et Architecture, Paris, no. 2, 1955. 

19.56 "Entretien de Fernand Leger avec Blaise Cendrars et Louis Carre." Le Paysage dans I'oeuvre de Fernand Leger. 1956, Paris, Louis Carre. 



105 



PEItlOUK ALS .Wn BOOKS 

J912 Gleizes. A. and Metzinger. J. Da Cubisme. Paris. Figuiere. 1912. English translation: London. Unwin. 1913. 
1913 AUard, R. Fernand Leger, Paris. Soirees de Paris. 1913. 

Apollinaire, G. Les Peintres Cubistes, Paris, Figuiere. 1913. English translation: The Cubist Painters. New York, Wittenborn. 1949. 

Boccioni. U. "11 dinamismo futurista e la Pittura francese." Lacerba. Florence, no. 15. 1913, pp. 169-171. 

\^ alden. H. "Les Origines de la peinture conteinporaine et sa valeur representative." Der Sturm, Berlin, nos. 172-173, 1914, p. 76. 
1915 T^right. \^'. H, Modern Painting, Its Tendency and Meaning, New York. London. John Lane. 1915. pp. 256-257. 
1917 \\ alden. H. Einbliek in Kunst : Expressionismus. Futurismus, Kubismus, Berlin, \erlag der Sturm, 1917. 

1919 Cendrars. B. "Les Peintres Cubistes." Rose Rouge, Paris. 1919. 

Cendrars. B. "Construction." Dix-neuf Poemes elastiques. Paris. Au Sans Pared. 1919. 

Ely. C. B. "Monsieur Leger." Sewanee Review, Sewanee. Tennessee, vol. 77, January 19. 1919. pp. 43-47. 

1920 Goll. I. "liber Kubismus." Das Kunstblatt, Potsdam, vol. 4. 1920. pp. 215-222. 
Kahnweiler, D.-H. Der Weg zuni Kubismus. Munich. Delphin Verlag. 1920. pp. 47-51. 
English translation: The Rise of Cubism, New York. T^ittenborn, Schultz, 1949. pp. 17-19. 
Kahnweiler. D.-H. "Fernand Leger." Der Cicerone. Leipzig, vol. 12. no. 19. 1920. pp. 699-702. 
Raynal, M., "Fernand Leger: vingt tableaux." Paris. Editions de TEffort Moderne. 1920. 
Salmon. A. L'Art I ivant. Paris. Cres. 1920. pp. 128-132. 

1921 Kahnweiler. D.-H. Collection. H6tel Drouot. Paris. 1921. pp. 21-22: 1922, pp. 17-18; 1923, pp. 20-23. 

1922 Goll, I. "Fernand Leger." Das Kunstblatt. Potsdam, vol. 6. 1922. pp. 73-77. 
Kassak, L. and Moholy-Nagy. L. Buch Neuer Kunstler, Vienna, 1922, pp. 42-44. 

1923 Cendrars. B. "La Creation du Monde." L'Esprit Nouveau. Paris, vol. 2, 1923, pp. 2113-2120. 
Epstein. J. "Fernand Leger." Feuilles Libres, Paris, no. 31. 1923. pp. 26-31. 

Gordon. J. Modern French Painters. New York. Dodd. Mead. 1923. pp. 144-145. 
Raynal. M. "Skating-Ring." L'Esprit Nouveau. Paris, vol. 2. 1923. pp. 2020-2024. 

1924 Badovici. J. "Projet decoratif et Fresques par F. Leger." Architecture Vivante. Paris. 1924. pp. 10-11. 

Hildebrandt. H. Die Kunst des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, Wildpark-Potsdam. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Athenaion, 1924, pp. 393-396. 

1925 Fels. F. Propos d' Artistes. Paris. La Renaissance du Livre. 1925. pp. 97-106. 
Lozowick. L. "Fernand Leger." Nation. New York. vol. 121, 1925, p. 712. 

Dreier, K. S. Modern Art, New York, Societe .\nonyme, Museum of Modern Art. 1925. p. 15. 

Einstein. C. Die Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts, Berlin. Propylaen Verlag. 1925. pp. 94-100. 324-335. 

George W. "Fernand Leger." .4mour de I'Art, Paris, voL 7, 1925, pp. 259-263. 

Kurtz. R. Expressionismus und Film. Berlin. Verlag der Lichtbiihne. 1925. pp. 25-56-92-103-106. 

Lozowick. L. "Leger." Nation, New \ork. vol. 171. December 16. 1925. p. 712. 

Raynal. ^L "Fernand Leger." Cahiers d'.4rt, Paris, vol. 1, 1925. pp. 61-64. 

Warned, A. Les Berceaux de la jeune peinture. Paris, Albin .Michel. 1925. pp. 82. 156, 215. 

1927 Gasch. S. "Fernand Leger." L'.4mi des Arts, Sitges, vol. 2, no. 10. 1927. 
George, W. "Lettre de Berlin." Art Vivante, Paris, vol. 3, 1927, pp. 835-836. 
Mauny, J. "Paris Letter." The Arts. New York, vol. 2, 192J. pp. 320-323. 

Raynal. M. Anthologie de la Peinture en France. Paris. Editions Montaigne. 1927. jip. 205-212. English translation: Modern French Painters, 

New York. Brentano"s. 1928. pp. 111-116. 230-232, 

Zervos, C. "Nouvelles Peintures de Fernand Leger." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 2, 1927. pp. 149-158. 

1928 Grohmann. W. "Leger." in Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker. Allegemeines Lexikon der bildenden Kiinstler. Leipzig. Seemann, vol. 22. 1928. 
pp. 566-567. 

Teriade. E. Fernand Leger, Paris, Editions Cahiers d"Art, 1928. 

Teriade, E. "Oeuvres recentes de Leger: les Objets dans I'Espace." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, voL 3, no. 4. 1928. pp. 145-152. 

Uhde. W. Picasso et la tradition franqaise: Notes sur la peinture actuelle, Paris. Ed. des Quatre-Chemins. 1928. pp. 69-70. English transla- 
tion : Picasso and the French Tradition, New York. E. Weyhe. 1929. p. 68. 

1929 Basler, A. Le Cafard apres la fete. Paris, Jean Budry, 1929, pp. 46-47. 111-112. 
Cogniat. R. "Decors de Fernand Leger." Chroniques du Jour. Paris, no. 3. 1929. pp. 19-21. 
Fierens. P. "Fernand Leger." La Renaissance. Paris, vol. 12. 1929. pp. 380-387. 

George. W. Fernand Leger. Paris. Gallimard. 1929. English translation: The .4rts, New York. vol. 15. pp. 303-313. 

Janneau. G. VArt Cubiste. Paris. Charles Moreau. 1929. pp. 23. 81-84. 

Ozenfant. A. Art, Paris, Jean Budry, 1929, pp. 117, 125, 128-129. 

Selection, Antwerp, vol. 8, 1929. Essays by B. Cendrars, W. George. E. Teriade. P. Morand. M. Raynal. M. Flouquet. T. Van Doesburg, Le Corbusier, 

Teriade, E. "Documentaire sur la jeune Peinture: IWvenement classique du Cubisme." Cahiers d'Art. Paris, vol. 4, 1929, pp. 447-455, 

Zervos. C. "Fernand Leger et le Developpement des Objets dans FEspace." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, 1929. pp. 149-158. 

1930 Berthelot, P. "L'.-^telier de Fernand Leger." Beaux- Arts. Paris, vol. 8, December 20. 1930, p. 14. 
Einstein. C. "Leger: Oeuvres recentes." Documents. Paris, vol. 2. no. 4. 1930. pp. 190-195. 
George. \V. "Fernand Leger, Triomphe et Misere d"une Victoire." Formes. Paris, no. 7, 1930, pp. 4-6. 
Goodrich. L. "Leger." Arts. New York. vol. 17. November-December. 1930. pp. 117-119. 

Zervos, C. "De I'lmportance de rObjet dans la Peinture d"aujourd"hui." Cahiers d'.4rt, Paris, vol. 5, 1930, pp. 113-120, 225-228, 281-287, 
343-354. 



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1931 Bazin, G. "Fernand Leger ou I'Effort moderne."- Amour de I' Art, Paris, vol. 12, 1931, pp. 245-247. 

Hoppe. R. "Fransk genombrottkonst under nittonhundratalet." Ord och Bild, Stockholm, vol. 40. 1931, pp. 527-543. 

Kormendi. A. "Fernand Leger." Creative Art, New York, vol. 9, 1931. pp. 218-222. 

Morris, G. L. K. "On Fernand Leger and Others." The Miscellany, New York, vol. 1, no. 6. 1931, pp. 1-16. 

Raynal. M. "De la Fresnaye a Fernand Leger." Plans, Paris, no. 1. 1931, pp. 94-96. 

Sweeney, J. J. "Leger and the Cult of the Close-Up." Arts, New York. vol. 17. 1931, pp. 561-568. 

Sweeney. J. J. "A Picture by Leger: Contraste de Formes." Creative Art, New York. vol. 9. 1931. pp. 63-64. 

Teriade, E. "Leger." in Edouard-Joseph, Dictionnaire biographique des Artistes Contemporains, 1910-1930, Paris. Art de Tradition, vol. 2, 

1931, pp. 351-359. 

1932 Bond, K. "Leger, Dreyer and Montage." Creative Art, New York, vol. 11. no. 2, 1932, pp. 135-138. 
George, W. "Genese d'une Crisis." Amour de I' Art, Paris, vol. 13, 1932, pp. 267-277. 

Sweeney, J. J. "Leger and Cinesthetic." Creative Art, New York, vol. 10, 1932, pp. 440-445. Reprinted in Lewis Jacobs, ed.. Introduction to 
the Art of the Movies, New York. Noonday. 1960. pp. 173-177. 

Zervos, C. "Une nouvelle etape dans I'oeuvre de Fernand Leger: Gouaches et Dessins colores." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 7, nos. 6-7, 1932, 
pp. 264-269. 

1933 Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 8, nos. 3-4, 1933 (special issue). 

Cogniat, R. "Le Cubisme methodique: Leger et I'Effort moderne." Amour de I'Art, Paris, vol. 14, 1933, pp. 2.34-238. 
Columbier, P. and Manuel, R. Les Arts, Paris, Denoel et Steele, 1933, pp. 80-81. 
Read, H. An Now, New York, Harcourt-Brace, 1933. 

1934 "Notwendigkeit der Modernseins." Deutsche Rundschau, vol. 238, March, 1934, pp. 167-170. 

Sweeney. J. J. Plastic Redirections in 20th Century Painting, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1934, pp. 22, 25. 
Zervos. C. "Fernand Leger et la poesie de lobjet." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 9, no. 1, 1934. pp. 99-108. 

1935 "French painter exhibits some new angles on old planes." Newsiveek, New York, vol. 6, 1935, p. 27. 
Huyghe, R. Histoire de I'Art contemporain: La Peinture, Paris, Alcan, 1935. pp. 213-214, 234-238. 
"Leger." Time, New York, vol. 26, October 14, 1935, pp. 50-51. 

Morris, G. L. K. "Fernand Leger versus cubism." Museum oi Modern Art Bulletin, New York. vol. 3. no. 1, 1935. 
Zoubaloff, J. "Collection." Catalogue de la Vente, Hotel Drouot. 1935, pp. 15-17. 

1936 Barr, A. H.. Jr. Cubism and Abstract Art, New York, Museum of Modern Art. 1936. 
Greene, B. "The Function of Leger." Art Front, New York, vol. 2, no. 9, 1936, pp. 8-9. 

1937 Bruguiere, P.-G. "L'Exposition Fernand Leger." Nouvelle Revue Frangaise, Paris, vol. 48, 1937, pp. 632-634. 
Escholier, R. La Peinture Frangaise, XX" Siecle, Paris, Floury, 1937, pp. 94-95, 97-98. 

Nelson, P. "Peinture spatiale et Architecture; a propos des dernieres oeuvres de Leger." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 12, 1937, pp. 85-88. 
"New York University acquires outstanding painting by Leger: The City." Art News, New York, vol. 35, 1937, p. 17. 

1938 Blunt. A. "Painting. Engineering and Mathematics." Spectator, London, vol. 160, January 21. 1938. p. 88. 
Zervos, C. Histoire de I'Art Contemporain, Paris, Editions Cahiers d"Art, 1938, pp. 329-340. 

1939 Champigneulle, B. L'Inquietude dans I'Art d'Aujourd'hui, Paris, Mercure de France, 1939, pp. 129-130. 
Cheronnet, L. "L'Expression murale chez Fernand Leger." Art et Decoration, Paris, vol. 2, 1939, pp. 152-158. 
Duthuit, G. "Union et Distance." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, 1939, pp. 57-64. 

Jouhandeau, M. "Making raids on faces." Verve, vol. 2, nos. 5-6, 1939, p. 67. 

Huyghe, R. La Peinture frangaise: Les Contemporains, Paris, Tisne, 1939. pp. 34-35. 

Madsen, H. Fran Symbolism till Surrealism, Stockholm. Ahlen oon Soners, 1939, pp. 127-129. 

Martienssen, R. "Architecture in Modern Painting." South African Architectural Record, Johannesburg, vol. 24, no. 3, 1939, pp. 76-91. 

1940 Follain, J. "Fernand Leger." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 15, nos. 1-2, 1940, pp. 22-32. 

Gallatin, A. E. Museum of Living Art, A. E. Gallatin Collection, New York, New York University, 1940, pp. 12. 30. 
Painleve, J. "A propos d'un 'nouveau realisme' chez Fernand Leger." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 15, nos. 3-4. 1940, pp. 70-71. 
Steuben Glass, New York. The Collection of Designs in Glass by Twenty-Seven Contemporary Artists. New York, 1940, pp. 46-47. 
Wilenski, R. Modern French Painters, New York, Reynal & Hitchcock, 1940. 

1941 Chrysler, W. P., Jr. Collection. Virginia Museum of Fine .4rts. Richmond. 1941, pp. 52-63. 
Greenberg, C. "Art." Nation, New York. vol. 152, April 19, 1941. pp. 481-482. 

Janis, S. "School of Paris Comes to U.S." Decision, New York, vol. 2, nos. 5-6, 1941, pp. 85-95. 
"Muralist." Neiv Yorker, New York, vol. 16, January 4, 1941, p. 10. 
Sweeney, J. J. "Leger: classicista." Norte, New York, vol. 1, no. 9, 1941, pp. 14-15. 
"Twelve Artists in U.S. Exile." Fortune, New York, vol. 24, 1941, p. 104. 

1942 Farber, M. "Two European Painters." New Republic, New York, vol. 107, 1942, p. 610. 
Georges-Michel, M. Peintres et Sculpteurs que j'ai connus. New York. Brentano's, 1942. pp. 73-76. 

Martiennsen, R. "Fernand Leger in Paris — 1938." South .African .Architectural Record. Johannesburg. .August, 1942, pp. 237-239. 

Payro, J. E. Pinlura Moderna, Buenos Aires, Poseidon, 1942, pp. 182-183. 

Stockho, T. "Recent Accession . . . Bird Woman." St. Louis Museum Bulletin. St. Louis, vol. 27, 1942. pp. 26-28. 

Sweeney, J. J. "Today's Leger — demain: Famous French .Abstractionist's Work in his Two Year American Exile." Art News, New York, 

vol. 41, 1942. pp. 18-19, 30. 



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1943 "Leger." Current Biography. New York. H. W. Wilson. 1943. pp. 436-4.SK 

1944 Dorival, B. Les Etapes de la Peinture jrangaise contemporaine, 3 volumes, Paris. Gallimard. vol. 2. 1944. pp. 175-177. 
Georges-Michel. M. Les Grandes Epoques de la Peinture Moderne, New York. Paris. Brentano's, 1944, pp. 175-177. 
"Portrait." Colliers, New- York, vol. 1114, November 25, 1944, p. 22. 

Skira. A., ed. Anthologie du Livres illustre par les Peintres et les Sculpteurs de I'Ecole de Paris, Geneva. A. Skira. 1944. p. 58. 
Sweeney, J. J. "Leger and the Search for Order." View, New^ork. series 4. no. 3. 1944, pp. 84-87. 

1945 Bazaine, J. Fernand Leger, Peintures anterieures a 1940, Paris, L. Carre, 1945. 
Bille. E. Picasso, Surrealisme, Abstrakte Kunst, Copenhagen, Helios. 1945. pp. 88-89. 
Bonfante. E. Arte Cubista, Venice, Ateneo, 1945, pp. 135. 139, 141. 

"Ecole de Paris a New York." V Amour de I'Art, Paris, no. 2, 1945, pp. 32-33. 

Fernand Leger, La Forme Humaine dans I'Espace, MontreaL Editions de TArbre. 1945. Includes essays by F. Hertel. M. A. Couturier, 

-M. Gagnon, S. Giedion, S. M. Kootz, J. J. Sweeney. 

Georges-Michel, M. Chefs-d'oeuvre de Peintres Contemporains, New York. Editions de la Maison Francaise, 1945. pp. 175-189. 

Giedion, S. "Leger in America." Magazine of Art, Washington. D.C., vol. 38, 1945, pp. 295-299. 

Loeb, P. Voyager a trovers la Peinture, Paris. Bordas, 1945. pp. 90-91. 

1946 Aniberg. G. Art in Modern Ballet, New York. Pantheon. 1946. pp. 52, 55, 94. 
Besson, G. "Fernand Leger." Pages Frangaises, Paris, no. 13, 1946, pp. 123-125. 
Clayeux, L.-G. "Le Retour de Leger." Les Arts et les Lettres, Paris, vol. 2, no. 6. 1946. 
Jakovsky, A. "Realite d'hier et d'aujourd'hui." Arts de France, Paris, no. 6, 1946, pp. 17-30. 

Kahnweiler. D.-H. Juan Gris, Paris, Gallimard, 1946. English translation by Douglas Cooper. London, Lund Humphries; New York, Curt 

Valentin. 1947. 

".Machine Age, Paris Style." Time, New York, vol. 47, March 18. 1946, p. 65. 

Moholy-Nagv-, L. Vision in Motion, Chicago, Paul Theobald. 1946. 

Moussinac, L. "Fernand Leger retrouve la France." Arts de France, Paris, no. 6, 1946. pp. 33-36. 

"Oeuvres executees aux Etats-Unis." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vols. 20-21. 1945-1946. pp. 372-383. 

Sweeney, J. J. "Eleven Europeans in .\merica." Museum of Modern Art Bulletin. New York. vol. 13. nos. 4-5. 1946, pp. 13-15, 38. 

Watt, A. "The .A.rt World of Paris." Studio. London, vol. 132, 1946. pp. 161-177. 

1947 Couturier, 0. P. "-\ Modern Church at .\ssy -\dorned by the Great .\rtists of our Time." Harper's Bazaar, New York. December, 1947, pp. 
121-123. 

Eluard, P. ".^ Fernand Leger." Cahiers du Sud, Marseilles, vol. 34, no. 285: J'oir. Geneva-Paris, Editions des Trois CoUines. 1947. pp. 33-35. 
Viallard. D. "Georges Braque et Leger a -\vignon." Poesies 47. Paris. Seghers. no. 41. 1947. pp. 113-114. 

1948 .\lfons. S. "Leger nid Skiljovagen." Konstrevy, Stockholm, vol. 24. nos. 4-5. 1948, pp. 189-197. 
Biedermann. C. .4rt as the Evolution of I isual Knowledge, Red Wing, Minnesota. Charles Biedermann. 1948. 
Couturier, O. P. "L'Eglise d'Assy." Arts, Paris, no. 12, April 16, 1948. 

Davidson. M. An Approach to Modern Painting, New York, Coward. McCann. 1948. pp. 129-130. 

Davis, R. "Institute acquires painting by Leger . . . Table and Fruits." Minneapolis Institute Bulletin. Minneapolis, vol. 37, 1948, pp. 3-7. 

Elgar, F. Leger, Peintures, 1911-1948, Paris, Editions du Chene, 1948. 

Gischia, L. "Leger." in Bernard Dorival. Les Peintres Celebres, Geneva, Paris, Lucien Mazenod, 1948. pp. 334-335. 

Greenberg, C. "The Painter's Conflict." in Samuel M. Kootz, Women, New York, Samuel M. Kootz. 1948. pp. 13-15. 

Haftmann, W. "Neues von Fernand Leger." Tagebuch, Dusseldorf. nos. 3-4, 1948, pp. 34-36. 

Kraus. P. "Constructie der Schoonheid." Kronick von Kunst en Kiiltuur. Amsterdam, vol. 9, no. 4, 1948. pp. 107-109. 

Miller Company Collection. Painting Toward .irchitecture, text by Henry Russell Hitchcock. New^ York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1948. 

pp. 27, 30, 50-51. 

1949 .\rland. M. "Leger." Chronique de la Peinture Moderne, Paris, Corran, 1949, pp. 175-178. 

"Artistes chez eux vus par Maj^vald." special issue of .Architecture d'.4ufourd'hui: .Arts Plastiques, Boulogne, 1949, pp. 22-25. 

.\udiberti. "Fernand Leger est un phenomene historique." .Arts, Paris, no. 231, October 7, 1949. 

Cassou, J. "Fernand Leger." Art News, New York, vol. 48, November, 1949, pp. 27, 58-59. 

Cassou, J. and ApoUinaire, G. Fernand Leger, exposition retrospective 1905-1949, Paris. Musee d'.\rt Moderne. 1949. 

Cooper. D. Fernand Leger et le Nouvel Espace, Geneva, Editions des Trois CoUines. 1949. 

Hilaire, G. Les Lauriers inutiles, Nouvelles Editions Latines, Paris, 1949, pp. 410. 561, 563. 

Degand. L. "F. Leger." .irt d\Aufourd'hui, Boulogne, vol. 1, no. 3. 1949, pp. 16-18. 

"Fernand Leger." Life, New York, vol. 27, December 12, 1949, p. 88. 

"Fire!" Time, New York, vol. 54, October 31, 1949, p. 40. 

"Fernand Leger." Architecture d'.Aufourd'hui, Paris, vol. 20, no. 22, 1949. pp. 6-7. 

GuiUevic. "Sur des figures de Fernand Leger." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 24, no. 1, 1949, pp. 81-87. 

Jardot, M. and Martin, K. Les Maitres de la Peinture Frangaise Contemporaine, Baden-Baden. Ed. Waldemar Klein. 1949. 

Baumeister, \^. and Greenberg. C. "Fernand Leger." L'.Age I\'ouveau. Paris, no. 42. 1949. 

Zervos, C. "Situation de Leger." Cahiers d'.Art, Paris, no. 2, 1949, p. 313. 

1950 -A-gay, C. "L'.\rtiste et son modele." .4rt d'.Aufourd'hui, Paris. May-June, 1950, pp. 16-18. 
Cassou, J. Situation de I'Art moderne, Paris. Editions de Minuit, 1950. 

Cooper, D. Fernand Leger: . . .at the Tate Gallery, February 17 to March 19, 1950, London Arts Council, 1950. 

Denvir, B. "Painter of modern industrial forms." Studio, London, vol. 140. 1950. pp. 170-173. 

"Fragment d'un decor pour Bolivar." .Art d'Aufourd'hui, Boulogne, nos. 10-11, 1950, p. 48. 

De Picasso a Surrealisme. (Histoire de la Peinture Moderne) Geneva, Skira, 1950, pp. 72-76. 123126. 197-198. English translation: From 

Picasso to Surrealism, Geneva. Skira, 1950. 

Jakovsky, .\. La Petite Reine, dessins de Fernand Leger, Paris, 1950. 



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Kahnweiler, D.-H. "Feinand Leger." Burlington Magazine, London, vol. 92, 1950, pp. 63-69. 

"Londra: Una personale di Fernand Leger," Kniporiitni, Bergamo. \ol. 112. 1950. pp. 36-39. 

Marchiori, G. Pittura Moderna in Europa, Venice. Neri Pozza, 1950. pp. 129-132. 

"Memorial de Bastogne, Belgique, MosaVques de Fernand Leger." Art d'Aujourd'hui, Boulogne, second series, no. 1, 1950, p. 29. 

Pierre, J. "Fernand Leger: Aquarelles de Deauville." Arts de France, no. 33. 1950. pp. 52-53. 

Raynal, M. "Fernand Leger." Carreau, Lausanne, no. 4, 1950, pp. 1-3. 

Sutton, D. "Leger at the Tate." Art News and Review, London, vol. 2. no. 2, 1950, p. 3. 

Sylvester, D. "Portrait of the Artist: Fernand Leger." Art News and Review, London, vol. 2, no. 2, 1950. pp. 1, 7. 

1951 "Audincourt." L'Art Sacre, Paris, nos. 3-4, 1951. 

Barlatier, P. "F. Leger etablit un dialogue entre lui et le public." Ce Soir. Paris. June 2. 1951. 

"Le Cirque de Fernand Leger." Donius, Milan, no. 258, 1951, pp. 42-43. 

Dionisio, M. Encontros em Paris: F. Leger um jovem de 68 anos, Lisbon, Ed. \ertice, 1951. 

Elgar, F. "Les Constructeurs de F. Leger." Carrefour, Paris, June 12, 1951. 

Estienne, C. "De Gauguin a Leger." Observateur, Paris, June 7, 1951. 

Roy, C. Fernand Leger. Les Constructeurs. Paris, Falaize, 1951. 

Francastel. P. Peinture et Societe, Lyon, Audin, 1951. 

Gindertael, R. V. "Leger." Art d'Aujourd'hui. Boulogne, series 3, no. 1, 1951, p. 15. 

Hildebrandt. H. "Der Maler Fernand Leger." Die Kunst und das Schone Heim, Munich, vol. 49, no. 7, 1951, p. 257. 

Lacote, R. "F. Leger." Parallele, Paris, May, 1951, pp. 1-5. 

"Leger." Svizzera Italiana. no. 14. 1951. pp. 21-22; nos. 17-18. pp. 1-2. 

Leger. Seventieth Anniversary Exhibition. Louis Carre Gallery, New \ork. 1951. 

McBride, H. "Leger." Art News, New York, vol. 50, no. 2, 1951, pp. 23, 54, 56, 57. 

Marcenac, J. "Leger et les ouvriers de la Beaute." Lettres Frangaises, June, 1951. 

Veronesi, G. "Fernand Leger." Emporium, Bergamo, vol. 114, 1951. pp. 107-109. 

"Wandmalerei von Fernand Leger im Franzosischen Pavilion. Triennale Mailand." Berk. Ziirich. vol. 38. 1951, p. 262. 

Zervos, C. "A propos des Constructeurs de Fernand Leger." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 26, 1951, pp. 190-202. 

1952 Bazaine, J. "Une nouvelle interpretation de Thomme." Arts, Paris, no. 363. June 12. 1952. 
"Baked Brightness." Time, New York, vol. 59, January 21, 1952, p. 59. 

Bouret. J. "Leger." in E. Benezit, Dictionnaire critique des peintres, etc.. new edition. Paris. Griind. vol. 5, 1952, pp. 482-483. 

Carre, L. La Figure dans I'oeuvre de Leger. Paris, L. Carre. 1952, (contains "Mon ami Leger" by .'\ndre Maurois and "Comment je congois la 

figure" by Leger). 

Degand, L. "Capire Fernand Leger." Biennale, Venice, no. 8, 1952, pp. 13-18. 

Gindertael, R. V, "Sculptures polychromes." Art d'Aujourd'hui, Boulogne, series no. 3. no. 2, 1952. 

Gindertael. R. V. "La figure dans I'oeuvre de Fernand Leger." Art d'Aujourd'hui. Boulogne, series no. 3, no. 6, 1952. 

Grand, P. M. "Ceramiques de peintres." Art et Decoration, Paris, vol. 30. 1952. pp. 4-7. 

Sterling. C. La Nature morte de I'antiquite a nos jours, Paris, Tisne. 1952. pp. 15, 100. 

Zervos, C. Fernand Leger: oeuvres de 1905 a 1952, Paris, Editions Cahiers d'Art, 1952. 

1953 Brown, J. "iMan and Woman." Indianapolis .Art .Association Bulletin, Indianapolis, vol. 40. no. 1, 1953, pp. 21-24. 
Cassou, J. "Developpement de I'art de Leger." La Revue des Arts, Paris, no. 1, 1953. pp. 40-45. 

Coates, R. M. "Art galleries." Neto Yorker, New York, vol. 29, November 7. 1953. pp. 90-92. 

"Le Cubisrae." Art d'Aujourd'hui, Boulogne, series 4, nos. 3-4, 1953, pp. 1-80. 

Elgar, F. "Les Sculptures polychromes de Leger." .irts, Paris, January 21, 1953, p. 14. 

"Exhibition at Perls." Arts, New York, vol. 30, October. 1953, pp. 50-51. 

Faison, S. L., Jr. "Art." Nation. New York, vol. 177, November 28, 1953. pp. 454-455. 

Fitzsimmons, J. "Art." .Arts and .Architecture, Los Angeles, December, 1953, pp. 6-7. 30-35. 

Imbourg, P. "Fernand Leger." L'.Amateur d'Art, Paris, no. 118, 1953, pp. 8-9. 

Jardot, M. Dessins, Paris, Editions des Deux-Mondes, 1953. 

Kuh, K. Leger, Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago, in collaboration with The Museum of Modern Arl. New York and the San Francisco 

Museum of Art. 1953. 

"Machine-age Primitive." Time. New York. vol. 61, June 22, 1953. pp. 62-63. 

"Machines and Men." Newsweek, New York, vol. 41, April 13, 1953, p. 71. 

Milhaud. D. "Divertissements varies." Magazine of Art, Washington. D.C.. vol. 46. no. 2. 1953. pp. 59-67. 

Raynal, M. "Leger." Vogue, New York, vol. 122, October 1, 1953, pp. 144-145. 

Rexroth. K. "Fernand Leger: master mechanic." Art News. New York. vol. 52. October, 1953. ])p. 20-23 + . 

Sweeney. J. J. "Leger's Art is the Man." A'eii' York Times Magazine, New York, October 18. 1953. pp. 28-29. 

1954 Barr, A. H., Jr., ed. .Masters of Modern Art, New York, Museum of Modern Art, 1954. 
Elgar, F. Picasso et Leger, 2 Hommes, 2 Mondes, Paris, Les Amis de I'Art. 1954. 

Elgar, F. "Leger." in Dictionnaire de la Peinture Frangaise, Paris, Hazan, 1954, pp. 153-156. 

"Erweiterung der Kirche vom Courfaivre." U'erk, Winterthur, December, 1954. 

Fernand Leger, oeuvres recenles, 1953-1954. Maison de la Pensee jrancaise. Paris. Maison de la Pensee fran(;aise. 1954. 

Georges-Michel, M. De Renoir a Picasso, les peintres que j'ai connus, Paris, Fayard, 1954, pp. 115-119. 

Gindertael. R. V. "Fernand Leger propose I'art populaire de notre epoque." Les Beaux-.Arls. Brussels, November 19. 1954. ' 

Greenberg. C. "Master Leger." Partisan Review, New York, vol. 21, January. 1954. pp. 40-47. 

Haftmann. W. Malerei im 20. Jahrhundert, Munich, Prestel-Verlag, 1954, pp. 168. 362-367. 507. 

Jennison, W. B. "Do Leger's Murals in the U.N. General Assembly mean anything?" School Arts, vol. 54. November, 1954, pp. 18-20. 

Maunoury, R. "Peut-on miser sur un peintre moderne?" Nouveau Femina, Paris, October. 1954. i). 79. 



109 



Sylvester. D. "The Realism of Leger." Art, London, vol. 1, no. 1, November. 1954. p. 4. 
"The Gift of a Leger." Carnegie Magazine, Pittsburgh, September. 1954, p. 225. 
VaUier, D. "La vie fait Toeuvres de Fernand Leger." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 29, 1954, pp. 133-177. 
Verdet, A. "Leger ou la joie de vivre." Defense de la Paix, Paris, no. 42, 1954, pp. 81-91. 
\^'alden, N. and Schreyer. L. Der Sturm, Baden-Baden, Waldemar Klein, 1954. 
"Wie Weiter? Fernand Leger.'" Magnum, Frankfurt, no. 3, 1954. 

Zevros. C. "Fernand Leger. La Grande Parade."" Cahiers d'Art. Paris, vol. 2. 1954. pp. 131-132. 
1955 "Audincourt."" .A efs et Clochers, Paris. Edition du Cerf. 1955. 

Beauquier, G. "Fernand Leger, peintre." La Nouvelle Critique, Paris, no. 68, 1955. pp. 129-136. 

Berger, J. "L'Envoi for Leger." New Statesman, London, vol. 50, August 27. 1955. p. 239. 

Berger. M. "Fernand Leger ou le mythe de la machine." Preuves, Paris, no. 56, 1955, pp. 56-62. 

Cartier, J. -A. "Fernand Leger, ouvrier de la vie moderne." Jardin des Arts, Paris, no. 12. 1955. p. 748. 

Charles, G. "Fernand Leger."" Le Courrier Graphique, Paris, no. 79, 1955. p. 467. 

Chastel, A. "Fernand Leger. la maniere forte en peinture." Le Monde, Paris. August 19. 1955. 

Chonez, C. "Derniere journee avec Fernand Leger." i\'oui:eIles Litteraires, Paris, August 25, 1955. 

Cooper, D. "La Grande Parade de Fernand Leger." L'Oeil, Paris, no. 1. 1955, pp. 21-25. Reprinted in The Selective Eye, New York, Random 

House. 1955. pp. 114-119. 

Delot, J. "Fernand Leger, un primitif d"un age nouveau."' Quatrihne Internationale, Paris, vol. 13, nos. 11-12, 1955, pp. 45-47. 

Derondille. R. "'Homniage a Fernand Leger."" / 4 Soli. .\lba. July-August. 1955. 

Divonne, P. "L'EgUse et le politique artistique de I'Etat." L'Art Sacre, Paris, nos. 7-8, 1955, pp. 9-15. 

"Exhibition at Perls."' Art News, New York, vol. 54, October, 1955, p. 53. 

Fa%'re, L.-P. "Leger sera toujours vivant." Combat, Paris, August 9, 1955. 

"Fernand Leger."' Hobbies, vol. 60. June, 1955, p. 43. 

Ferrier, J.-L. "Leger et la civilisation technicienne." Les Temps Modernes, Paris, no. 116, 1955, pp. 126-147. 

Genet. "Letter from Paris." -\ett' Yorker, New \ork. vol. 31. September 10. 1955. p. 85. 

Gindertael. R. \. "Fernand Leger. Oeuvres Recentes 1953-1954: Le Paysage dans lOeuvre de F. Leger."' Cimaise, Paris, no. 3, 1955. 

Gindertael. R. V., "Fernand Leger 1881-1955."" Les Beaux-Arts, Brussels, September 30. 1955. 

"Great art and fashion fabrics." American Fabrics, no. 35, 1955, pp. 53-54. 

Gueguen. P. "Fernand Leger." Aujourd'hui, Boulogne, September. 1955, p. 5. 

Heron, P. "Leger." The Changing Forms of Art, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1955. pp. 148-151. 

"Hommage a Fernand Leger." Les Lettres Francoises, Paris, no. 582. August. 1955. Text by P. Abraham, L. Aragon. E. d'Astier de la Vi- 

gerie, R. Brice, J. Cassou, D. Cooper. P. Descargues. E. Fajon. M. Jardot. M. Leiris, Maiakovski, G. Sadoul. 

Bueche, J. and Juillerat. L.-E. "Hommage a Fernand Leger." Pour I'Art, Lausanne, no. 44. 1955. pp. 13-29. 

'"La Vie d'un Peintre. Fernand Leger."" L'Oeil, Paris, no. 10. 1955. pp. 40-44. 

Leger, Catalogue. Leverkusen. Stadtisches Museum Leverkusen. February. 1955. 

Lerrant. J.-J. "De Fernand Leger a Le Corbusier."' Resonnances Lyonnaises, no. 30, 1955. p. 35. 

Lerrant. J.-J. "Fernand Leger, premier mecanicien de la peinture."' Resonnances Lyonnaises, special issue, 1955. pp. 41-44. 

Lothar, G. B. "Fernand Leger, Menschen und Objekte."' Zeichnungen, Buchheim, Verlag Feldafing. 1955. 

Mellquist, J. "Landskap av Leger." Vardlo Horisont, Goteborg, no. 4, 1955, pp. 3-5. 

Mellquist, J. "I paesaggi di Leger." Comunita, Milan, no. 29. 1955, pp. 68-71. 

"New Fabrics put jModern Art in Fashion."' Lije, New York, vol. 39, November 14. 1955, pp. 140-144. 

Obituaries: Architectural Review, New York. November. 1955, p. 281. 

Illustrated London Neics, London, August 27. 1955, p. 348. 

Newsweek, New York, August 29. 1955, p. 53. 

Netv Yorker, New York. September 10. 1955. p. 85. 

Time, New Y'ork. August 29. 1955. p. 84. 

Werk, "Wlnterthur, October, 1955, pp. 195-196. 
Peillox, G. "Fernand Leger a realise dans Teglise de Courfaivre une ceuvre magistrale." Journal de la Maison Ch. Veillon, Lausanne, no. 4. 
1955, pp. 51-53. 

Reverdy, P. "Pour tenir tete a son epoque." Derriere le Miroir, Paris, Pierre a Feu, nos. 79, 80, 81, 1955. 

Bidder, A. "In Memoriam." Bulletin de T Academic Royale des Science. Lettres et Beaux- Arts de Belgique. Brussels, vol. 22. 1955. pp. 223-230. 
Sweeney. J .J. "Fernand Leger: simple and solid.'" Art News, New York, vol. 54. no. 6. 1955. pp. 29-31. 
Triolet. E. "Le Gros Tilleul." Heures Claires, Paris, no. 123, 1955. pp. 4-5. 
"'Ti-ying abstraction on fabrics." Art News, New York. vol. 54, November, 1955, p. 43. 
\'erdet. A. Fernand Leger, le dynamisme pictural, Geneva, Pierre Cailler. 1955. 
7956 Berger, J. "Leger: Artist and Man." Nation, New York, vol. 182, May 19, 1956. pp. 431-432. 

Cendrars, B. "Cendrars devant ces images nous a raconte trois histoires ..." Arts, Paris, no. 559. March. 1956. pp. 9, 14-20. 

Cooper, D. Fernand Leger. Dessins de Guerre, 1915-1916, Paris, Berggruen et Cie.. 1956. 

Degand. L. "L'Heritage de Fernand Leger." Aujourd'hui art et architecture, Paris, no. 9. September. 1956, pp. 4-13. 

"Exhibition at Musee des Arts Decoratifs." Burlington Magazine. London, vol. 98. July. 1956. p. 249. 

Fernand Leger. 1881-1955. Catalogue. Paris. Musee des .\rts Decoratifs. 1956. 

Fosca, F. Bilan du Cubisme, Paris. La Bibliotheque des Arts. 1956, pp. 37-39, 52, 67-68. 

Francastel, P. Histoire de la Peinture Franqaise. du classiqisme au cubisme, vol. 2. Paris-Brussels. Elsevier, 1956, pp. Ill, 137-138, 145, 150- 

151, 169, 182, 194-195. 

Huggler. M. "Die Sammlung Hermann und Margrit Rupf." Du. Ziirich. no. 3. 1956. pp. 8-43. 

Jardot, M. Fernand Leger, Paris, Hazan, 1956. 



110 



Jardot, M.. "'Hommage a Leger." Salon de Mai. Paris, 1956. 

Mathey, F. "Leger et I'Art dit 'decoratif ." Jardin des Arts, Paris, no. 20, 1956. 

"Paintings Underfoot." Time, New York, vol. 68, July 23, 1956, pp. 64-65. 

Parmelin. M. Cinq Peintres et le Theatre, Leger, Coutaud, Gischia, Labisse, Pignon. Paris. Cercle d'Art, 1956. pp. 25-29. 

Richter. H. "In memory of two friends." College Art Journal, New York. vol. 15. no. 4. 1956. pp. 340-343. 

"Rugs designed by Picasso and other artists." Arts and Architecture, Los Angeles, vol. 73, May, 1956, p. 34. 

Verdet, A. Fernand Leger, Geneva. Kister, 1956. 
1957 "AussteUung im Kunsthaus, Ziirich." Werk, Winterthur, vol. 44, September, 1957, supplement, p. 168. 

Bowness, A. "Review: D. Cooper. Dessins de Guerre. 1915-1916." Burlington Magazine. London, vol. 99, July. 1957, p. 244. 

"Canvases of 1927 to 1931 at Rosenberg Gallery." Art News, New York, vol. 56. December, 1957, p. 10. 

Coates, R. M, "Art galleries: exhibition at Janis." New Yorker, New York, vol. 32, January 19, 1957, pp. 63-64. 

Combet, G. "Le derniere oeuvre de Fernand Leger." .4ujourd'hui Art et Architecture, Paris, no, 15, December, 1957, p. 33. 

Courthion, P. "Leger, peintre de la figure humaine." XX'^ Siecle, Paris, no. 4, January. 1957. 

David, C. W., ed. Moderne Kirchen: Leger: Audincourt, Ziirich, 1957. 

"Exhibition at .Sidney Janis Gallery: Major Themes." .4rts, New York, vol. 31, January, 1957, p. 50. 

"Exhibition at Janis Gallery." Art Neivs, New York. vol. 55, January, 1957, p. 20. 

Heilmaier, H. "Fernand Leger." Die Kunsl und das Schone Heim, Munich, no. 11, August, 1957, pp. 404-407. 

Jouffroy. A. "Ceramics by painters." Graphis, Ziirich. vol. 13. May, 1957, pp. 236-239. 

Lassaigne, J. "Fernand Leger." Prisme des .4rts, Panorama de Vart recent, Paris, 1957. 

Fernand Leger 1881-1955, Catalogue, Munich, Haus der Kunst, 1957. 

"Paintings of Leger and Masson, ca. 1930, shown together at Rosenberg Gallery." Arts, New York, vol. 32, December, 1957, p. 60. 

"Portrait drawing by B. F. Dolbin." Art News, New York, vol. 55, January, 1957, p. 21. 

Rykwert. J. "Making new old masters." Twentieth Century, vol. 161. May. 1957, pp. 475-478. 

Ryndel, N. "Den expansive Leger." Paletten, Goteberg. no. 4. 1957, pp. 108-111. 

"Tapestries and Windows at Audincourt." Graphis, Ziirich, vol. 13. May, 1957, pp. 230-231. 

Usami, E. "Picasso to Leger." Mizue. Tokyo, no. 621, April, 1957, pp. 5-27 (Japanese text I. 

Vallier, D. "Garnet inedit de Fernand Leger: esquisses pour un portrait." Cahiers d'.4rt. Paris, vols. 31-32, 1956-57, pp. 97-175 (.contains 

38 illustrations, 17 in color). 

Wingler, H. M., ed. !Fie sie einander sahen (Willi Baumeister — Fernand Leger), 1957. pp. 102-106. 
7958 "Drawings at the Louise Leiris Gallery." Arts, New York, vol. 32, May, 1958, p. 24. 

"Fernand Leger at the Galerie Louise Leiris." .4pollo, London, vol. 67, April, 1958, p. 140. 

"Leger and the School of Paris at Perls." Arts, New York, vol. 33. December, 1958. ]). 52. 

Prevert, J. "Le monde en vaut la peine." Aujourd'hui, Paris, no. 18. July, 1958, pp. 4-11. 

A Handbook to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Collection. New York. 1959, pp. 102-109. 

1959 Apollonio, U. Fauves and Cubists, New York, Crown, 1959. 

Cingria, H. "Le .Musee Fernand Leger: un monument aux dimensions cyclopeens." .4rt & Decoration, Paris, no. 74, July, 1959, p. 47. 

"Exhibition at Saidenberg." .4rt News, New York, vol. 57. January, 1959, p. 10. 

"Fernand Leger at the Musee Leger at Biot." Apollo, London, vol. 70, October, 1959, p. 103. 

Habasque, G. Cubism, Geneva, Skira, 1959. 

Mourlot, F. Art in Posters, New York, Braziller, 1959, pp. 31-37. 

"Prasentation des Leger — Museum von Biot in der Maison de la pensee frani;aise." Werk, Winlerlhur, vol. 46, May, 1959, p. 107. 

"Two Decades: exhibition at Saidenberg." Arts, New York, vol, 33, January. 1959, p. 54. 

1960 "Ceramics and .Sculpture at Gerson." Art News, New \ork. November 17. 1960, p. 17. 
"Exhibition at Saidenberg Gallery." Arts, New \ork, March, 1960, p. ,58. 
"Exhibition at Janis Gallery." Art News, New York, December, 1960, p. 14. 
"Exhibition at Janis Gallery." Arts, New York, December, 1960, p. 52, 

Ferrier, J. L. "Retrospective organized by the Galerie Europe." Arts, New York, May, 1960, p. 22. 

Gasser, M. "Exhibition Posters by Famous Painters." (German and French texts.) Graphis. Ziirich. vol. 16, March, 1960, |>p. 108-119. 

Haffman. W. Painting in the Twentieth Century, New York, Praeger, 1960. 

Hansing, E. G. and Meyer-Bohe, W. "Das Leger-Museum in Biot." Bau und IJerk. vol. 13. no. 12, 1960, pp, 688-690. 

Heron, P. "Fernand Leger." New Statesman and Nation. London, vol. 39. February 25, 1960, p. 215. 

"Le Musee L6ger a Biot." Cahiers d'Art. Paris, vols. 33-35, 1960, pp. 197-202. 

"Le Musee a Biot." Arts, Paris, no. 276, May, 1960, pp. 9, 25-31. 

"Les Expositions a Paris." Aujourd'hui, Paris, April, 1960, p. 47. 

"Leger at the Museum of Modern Art," Arts, New York, vol. 35. December, 1960, p. 22. 

Liberman, A. The Artist in His Studio, New York, Viking, 1960, pp. 49-52. 

Mock, J. Y. "Leger at the Galerie Europe." Apollo, London, vol. 71. April, 1960, p. 121. 

"Museum for an anti-museum man." Life, New York, vol. 49, October 17, 1960, p. .57. 

"Notable Works of Art Now on the Market." Burlington Magazine, London, vol. 102. December, 1960, supplement. 

Picon, G. "Hommage a Leger." Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vols. 33-35. 1960, pp. 201-202. 

Rosenblum, R. Cubism and Twentieth Century .4rt, New York, .^brams, 1960. 

Verdet. .\. "Le Temple Solaire de Fernand Leger a Biot." XX" Siecle, Paris, no. 22. June, 1960. supplement. 

1961 Ashlon, D. "Exhibition at the Janis Gallery and Museum of Modern Art." Arts and Architecture, Los Angeles, February, 1961, pp. 5 + . 
Flemming, H. T. "Kunstbrief aus Hamburg: Sammlung Henie-Onstad." Kunsttverk, Baden-Baden, July, 1961, p. 64. 

"Revue .\nnuelle de I'art ancien et moderne." Art de France, Paris, 1961, pp. 392-395. 

Wraight, R. "The Musee Fernand Leger." Studio. London, vol. 162, no. 824, December, 1961, pp. 206-209. 



Ill 



STAFF 



Director 

Administrative Assistant 
Curator of Education 
Assistant Curator 
Public Relations 
Membership 
Registrar 
Conservation 
Photography 



Thomas M. Messer 

Sheila More Ogden 

Louise Averill Svendseu 

Daniel Robbing 

Peter Pollack 

Donna Butler 

Arlene B. Del lis 

Orrin Riley and Saul Fuerstein 

Robert E. Mates 



Business Administrator 
Administrative Assistant 
Office Manager 
Building Superintendent 
Head Guard 



Glenn H. Easton. Jr. 
Viola H. Gleason 
Agnes R. Connolly 
Peter G. hoggin 
John J. Teeling 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS 



Helens Adant: 61. 

Oliver Baker: 5. 16. IT, 19, 29, 52, 70, 109, 110. 

Galerie Louis Carre: 106. 

Cohen Photos: 30. 

Robert Elkon Gallery: 1. 

Galerie Louise Leiris: 10, 20, 24, 37-39, 42, 47, 50, 53, 54, 66, 68, 72. 

Galerie Aime Maeght: 3, 8, 12-14, 21, 23, 26, 33, 43, 44, 46, 48, 49. 51, 

58-60. 63, 67, 69, 76-84, 89-99, 101-103. 
Robert Mates: 17,64, 104. 

Studio Jacques Mer: 35, 36, 40, 41, 57, 62, 65, 73, 85-87, 105. 
Museum of Modern Art. New York: 32. 100. 
Norton Gallery and School of .4rt. IFest Palm Beach: 27. 
Perls Galleries: 2, 18. 
EricPollitzer:45. 
Rain ford: 9. 

John D. Schiff: 7. 25, 28, 75. 
The Tate Gallery, London : 71. 
Taylor and Dull: 4. 
Portrait of Leger by Herbert Matter. 



COLOR PHOTOGRAPHS 



Mile. J. Hyde: 34. 

Galerie Aime Maeght: 22. 56, 74. HI. 11 la. 

Galerie Louis Carre: 11, 31. 

Sidney Janis Gallery: 15. 



Exhibition '62/2 February 28-April 29, 1962 

5.000 copies of this catalogue, designed by Herbert Mailer. 

have been printed by Sterlip Press, Inc. 

in February 1962 

jor the Trustees of The So/onwn R. Guggenheim Foundation 

on the occasion of the exhibition 

"Fernand Leger: Five Themes and Variations" 



THE SOLOMOX R. GrGGEXHEIM MUSEt'M 1071 FIFTH .WEXIE, >EW YORK 28, X. Y.